A Finding Aid to the Charles M. Kurtz Papers, 1843-1990, bulk 1884-1909, in the Archives of American Art

Summary
Collection ID:
AAA.kurtchar
Creators:
Kurtz, Charles M. (Charles McMeen), 1855-1909
Dates:
1843-1990
bulk 1884-1909
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
27.6 linear feet
Repository:
Archives of American Art
The papers of arts administrator, museum director, collector, dealer, and editor Charles M. Kurtz (1855-1909), measure 28 linear feet and date from 1843-1990 (bulk dates 1884-1909). The bulk of the collection consists of detailed chronological correspondence between Kurtz and his wife and family, friends, colleagues, and business associates that documents many notable exhibitions, galleries, museums, private collections, as well as cities, people, and events of the period. Also found in the collection are Kurtz's diaries, scrapbooks, printed materials, and photographs.

Scope and Content Note
Scope and Content Note
The Charles M. Kurtz papers measure 27 linear feet and date from 1843 to 1990 with the bulk of the material dating from 1884 to 1909. The bulk of the collection consists of chronological correspondence between Kurtz and his family, most notably his wife, friends, colleagues, and business associates. Kurtz's letters are amazingly detailed and document many notable exhibitions, galleries, museums, private collections, as well as cities, people, and events of the period. The letters between Kurtz and his wife are most interesting for their descriptive commentary on late 19th century life and offer a complete picture of Kurtz's activities. Many of Kurtz's letters to Halsey C. Ives can be found in the Halsey C. Ives Papers. Some of the letters in the collection are illustrated. Also found in the collection are Kurtz's diaries, scrapbooks, printed materials, and photographs.

Arrangement
Arrangement
The collection is organized into twelve series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Series 1: Biographical Information, 1885-1931, undated
Series 2: Correspondence, 1843-1940, undated
Series 3: Circulars/Requests for Submissions of Works of Art, 1886-1905
Series 4: Legal Records, 1881-1928
Series 5: Financial Records, 1870-1989, undated
Series 6: Diaries, 1894-1901
Series 7: Notes and Writings, 1872-1980, undated
Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1878-1909
Series 9: Printed Material, 1873-1990, undated
Series 10: Photographs, 1898-1990
Series 11: Photographs of Works of Art, undated
Series 12: Miscellany, undated

Biographical Note
Biographical Note
Charles M. Kurtz's name is known to many scholars and students of American art history. To some he is important for his critical writings, others are interested in his management of exhibitions for the Art Union and the American Art Association. Many are aware of him because of his publication of
National Academy Notes
, which continued for nine years. Still others are familiar with Kurtz in his role as an art administrator for late 19th century art exhibitions like those at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago and the St. Louis Fair, or for his accomplishments as the first director of the Albright Gallery in Buffalo, New York. Sometimes researchers have become familiar with his name through the sale catalogue for his considerable collection, which was sold at auction after his death in 1909. His career, which encompassed the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth century, touched on virtually every aspect of art in America during that period.
Born in 1853 to Davis Brook Kurtz (1826-1906), an attorney, and Julia Wilder, Charles Kurtz enjoyed a genteel upbringing. The Kurtz family originated in Darmstadt, Germany, and migrated to America in the eighteenth century. D.B. Kurtz, a leading member of the Lawrence County bar, was also a vice-president of the National Bank of Lawrence County, Pennsylvania. As a local representative of many important railroad and business interests, he accumulated assets estimated at one million dollars by the time of his death, just three years before that of his son, Charles, the eldest of his five children. Unlike his brothers Louis, who also became an attorney, and Edward, a professor at Columbia University, Charles eschewed a professional career to enter the art world, as did his sisters Emily, an artist, and Catherine, a musician.
After his graduation from Washington and Jefferson College in Washington, Pennsylvania, Kurtz visited the Centennial Exposition, held in 1876 in Philadelphia, before coming to New York to study art at the National Academy of Design. These two activities foreshadowed the direction that his career would eventually take. As the chronology indicates, his early efforts revolve around writing for a variety of publications, most notably, his own
National Academy Notes
. In 1881 he took what was to be the first of many trips abroad to survey the art scene in Europe. Later in his career, his fascination with foreign art and his own entrepeneurial interests led him to become an outspoken opponent of tariffs on imported art.
Kurtz's personal life changed significantly in 1884 when he met Julia Stephenson, a physician's daughter and fledging art student from Harrodsburg, Kentucky. Throughout their courtship and after their marriage the couple was frequently separated. Consequently, they wrote lengthy letters which document not only their personal relationship but also Kurtz's aspirations and activities in the art world.
With his appointment as one of Halsey C. Ives's (1847-1911) chief assistants of the Fine Arts Department of the World's Columbian Exposition in 1891, Charles Kurtz's career achieved international stature. Among the most notable European artists he introduced into this country through circulating exhibitions were the Glasgow School, the Danish School, the Hungarian artist, Mihaly Munkacsy, and the subject of his final exhibition, the Spanish artist, Sorolla.
Throughout his life, Kurtz was plagued by health problems and, in 1899, illness forced him to resign as Assistant Director of Fine Arts for the United States for the Paris Exposition of 1900. Throughout the following decade, his work was increasingly interrupted by ill health. His death in 1909 at the age of 54, while sudden, was not entirely unexpected. However it most certainly cut short a cosmopolitan career that encompassed virtually every aspect of the art world and the pertinent issues of the day.
Kurtz is remembered for his editorial work with the National Academy of Design; as Art Director for the Southern Exposition, 1883-1886, and the St. Louis Exposition, 1894-1899 (where he introduced the Glasgow School of Painting); and as Assistant Chief/Director for the World's Columbian Exposition, the 1900 Paris Exposition, and the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. He was also director of the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy.
1855
Charles McMeen Kurtz born
1876
receives B.S. degree from Washington and Jefferson College, Washington, Pennsylvania
1876-78
studies at the National Academy of Design, N.Y. with Lemuel Wilmarth and William Morgan; writes a column, "New York Letters," for
The Courant
published in New Castle, Pennsylvania
1878
edits a small daily paper published during a "National Camp Meeting for the promotion of Holiness" held that summer in New Castle, Pa.; its critical stance resulted in his public denouncement and earned him a reputation as a journalist in western Pennsylvania; receives M.A. from Washington and Jefferson College
1878-79
becomes the local editor of
The Guardian
of New Castle
1879
publishes
The Daily Reporter
, a financial success
1881
publishes the first issue of
National Academy Notes
; travels in Europe, spending time in England, Holland, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and France (Paris)
1881-82
prepares
Illustrated Notes
for Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibition
1882
writes "Art Notes" in
The New York Tribune
and resigns Dec. 23rd
1882-83
accepts position to write for
Music and Drama
, a new daily paper
1883
becomes the general manager of the American Art Union; exhibits a large collection of Art Union paintings in Buffalo, N.Y. and Louisville, Ky., where they became part of the Southern Exposition's first great art display
1883-86
accepts offer to become Director of the Art Department, Southern Exposition, Louisville, Kentucky
1884
edits
Art Union
magazine until December; applies for position to head the Art Department of the New Orleans World's Fair in September
1884-86
accepts a position offered by the American Art Association; terminates uncongenial relationship in March, 1886
1885
writes catalogues for the sale of the George Seney Collection and for the Watts exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; October 1, marries Julia Stephenson (1861-1931), daughter of Dr. A. T. Stephenson of Harrodsburg, Kentucky; they had two daughters who survived them: Julia Wilder Kurtz (1889-1977), and Isabella Starkweather Kurtz (1901-1991); another daughter, Elizabeth Stephenson Kurtz (1886-1897), predeceased them
1886
terminates employment with the Art Association; daughter, Elizabeth Stephenson Kurtz, born
1886-87
manages the circulation of Mihaly Munkacsy's
Christ Before Pilot
for Charles Sedelmeyer to American venues: New York, Boston, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Nashville, Phildelphia, Indianapolis; tour generates $90,000 in ticket receipts
1889-91
February 24, appointed art critic ("Art Notes") and book reviewer for
New York Daily Star
; later literary and art editor of the
Sunday Star
1890
writes for the Sunday edition
The Press
, a New York paper
1891
writes for
The World
; art editor for
The New York Recorder
; contributes to the
New York Truth
1891-93
contributes to
Chicago Evening Post
; writes artist biographies for
The Chicago Graphic
, a regional magazine; appointed Assistant Chief of the Department of Fine Arts of the World's Columbian Exposition
1894
contributes column, "Art at the Exposition" to
St. Louis Life
1895
tours Denmark, Scotland, and France during the summer on behalf of the St. Louis Exposition
1894-99
appointed Director of the Art Department of the St. Louis Annual Exposition
1896
elected member of The Japan Society, London
1897
daughter, Elizabeth (Daisy), dies
1898
receives a diploma and medal "in recognition of valuable services in connection with the Fine Arts Exhibit" from the directors of the Trans-Mississippi International Exposition, Omaha
1899
appointed Assistant Director of Fine Arts for the United States Commission to the Paris Exposition of 1900; resigned in July due to ill health
1901-04
appointed Assistant Chief of the Department of Art of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, August
1901
daughter, Isabella Starkweather Kurtz, born
1902
receives honorary Ph.D from Washington and Jefferson College "in recognition of distinguished ability and services as an art critic and writer"
1905
receives the cross of the Order of Merit from Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria; appointed Director, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy and Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York, in January; exhibits Glasgow paintings at Albright Art Gallery from November until the following April
1906
writes
Academy Notes
, a bulletin pubished by the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy and the Albright Art Gallery; father, D.B. Kurtz, dies in Newcastle, Pennsylvania
1907
accused of importing German pictures free of duty for exhibition purposes and then selling some for profit
1908
Honorary Doctor of Philosophy degree conferred by Washington and Jefferson College
1909
Charles M. Kurtz dies in Buffalo, New York on March 21
1910
Sale of the private collection of Charles M. Kurtz at auction, Fifth Avenue Art Galleries, February 24-25
1931
Widow, Julia Stephenson Kurtz dies October 30
1977
Daughter, Julia Wilder Kurtz, dies
1991
Daughter, Isabel Starkweather Kurtz, dies in Buffalo, N.Y.; remaining Charles M. Kurtz Papers bequeathed to the Archives of American Art and the National Academy of Design, New York

Administration
Alternative Forms Available
Most of the collection has been filmed on microfilm reels 4804-4826. The remaining documents were not filmed as they were represented elsewhere in the collection of the Archives of American Art. The microfilm is also available for interlibrary loan.
Processing Information
The collection was processed and the finding aid written by Arleen Pancza-Graham in 1996. The finding aid was modified during EAD conversion by Stephanie Ashley in 2002. Glass plate negatives were re-housed in 2015 with a grant provided by the Smithsonian Collections Care and Preservation Fund.
Author
Arleen Pancza-Graham
Provenance
For many years, the Kurtz Papers were thought to have been destroyed in a fire. Isabel Kurtz, a school teacher who lived with her older sister in Buffalo, New York, was vague when initially approached about her father's papers by Archives Regional Director, Robert Brown in the mid-1980s. However upon her death in 1991, her will revealed that the papers were indeed in her house in Buffalo and the bulk of them were bequeathed to the Archives of American Art. Paintings and a diary relating to the Glasgow School were given to the Yale Center for British Art. That diary has subsequently been duplicated on microfilm and is now also available in the Archives. Scorch marks on some of the papers and also on the paintings given to Yale suggest that there was indeed a fire. The material that was not bequeathed to the Archives included duplicates of printed documents along with books from the Kurtz library and a coin collection, all of which were dispersed in an estate auction that was held in Buffalo in 1991.

Using the Collection
Restrictions on Access
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and losed to researchers.
Ownership and Literary Rights
With the exception of material filmed on Reel 4912 the Charles M. Kurtz papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws. Permission from Yale University is required to quote, publish or reproduce from papers filmed on Reel 4912.
Preferred Citation
Charles M. Kurtz papers, 1843-1990 (bulk 1884-1909). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

Related Material
The St. Louis Exposition/Halsey C. Ives papers in the Archives of American Art contain material relating to Charles M. Kurtz.
Also in the Archives of American Art is Kurtz' Glasgow painting diary which was lent for microfilming (reel 4912).
Additional Charles Kurtz papers, 1870-1910, including 340 letters which discuss exhibitions, sales of art, patronage, atelier visits, and submissions to publications, and letters to his parents in which he discsses the art market and art world new; as well as manuscripts, notebooks, a diary, and printed ephemera relating to exhibitions and publications, are available at the Getty Research Institute, Research Library, Los Angeles, California.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Menus Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Works of art Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Lithographs Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Editors -- United States Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Etchings Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Glasgow school of painting Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Address books Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Exhibitions -- United States Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Art, Scottish Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Art -- Private collections Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Art criticism Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Art museums -- Buffalo (N.Y.) Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Art -- Collectors and collecting Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Art critics -- United States Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Museum directors -- New York (State) -- Buffalo Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Engravings Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Arts administrators -- United States Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Visiting cards Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Diaries Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photogravures Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Tempera paintings Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Oil paintings Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sketches Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Southern Exposition (1885 : Louisville, Ky.) Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Saint Louis Exposition and Music Hall Association (1883-1902 : Saint Louis, Mo.) Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Abbey, Edwin Austin, 1852-1911 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Albright Art Gallery (Buffalo, N.Y.) Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
American Art Association Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Avery, Samuel Putnam, 1822-1904 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Cesnola, Luigi Palma di, 1832-1904 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893 Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Clarke, Thomas B. (Thomas Benedict), 1848-1931 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Exposition universelle internationale de 1900 (Paris, France) Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hallowell, Sara Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904: Saint Louis, Mo.) Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hambidge, Jay, 1867-1924 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hasbrouck, Du Bois Fenelon, b.1860 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Irwin, Benoni, 1840-1896 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ives, Halsey Cooley, 1847-1911 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Kurtz, Davis Brook Kurtz, 1826-1906 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Kurtz, Julia Stephenson Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
National Academy of Design (U.S.) Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Wickenden, Robert J. Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Thum, Patty P., 1853-1926 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Wanamaker, John, 1838-1922 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Rhodes, Charles Ward, d. 1905 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Richardson, Mary Curtis, 1848-1931 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sedelmeyer, Charles Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Starkweather family Family Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Pluschow, Guglielmo Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Reid, Alexander Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Archives of American Art
750 9th Street, NW
Victor Building, Suite 2200
Washington, D.C. 20001
http://www.aaa.si.edu/askus