Charles Lang Freer Papers
FSA.A.01

Summary
Collection ID:
FSA.A.01
Creators:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919
Dates:
1876-1931
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
131 Linear feet
29 architectural drawings
Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
The personal papers of Charles Lang Freer, the industrialist and art collector who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. The papers include correspondence, diaries, art inventories, scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeil Whistler and other press clippings, and photographs.

Scope Content
Scope Content
The personal papers of Charles Lang Freer, the industrialist and art collector who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. The papers include correspondence, diaries, art inventories, scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeil Whistler and other press clippings, financial material, architectural drawings, and photographs.
Correspondence, circa 1860-1921, includes Freer's correspondence, 1876-1920, with artists, dealers, collectors, museums, and public figures; letterpress books contain copies of Freer's outgoing letters, 1892-1910; correspondence collected by Freer of James McNeill Whistler, and his wife Beatrix, 186?-1909, with Lady Colin Campbell, Thomas R. Way, Alexander Reid, Whistler' mother, Mrs. George W. Whistler, and others; correspondence of Whistler collector Richard A. Canfield, 1904-1913, regarding works in Canfield's collection; and correspondence of Freer's assistant, Katharine Nash Rhoades, 1920-1921, soliciting Freer letters and regarding the settlement of his estate.
Also included are twenty-nine pocket diaries, 1889-1890, 1892-1898, 1900-1919, recording daily activities, people and places visited, observations, and comments; a diary kept by Freer's caretaker, Joseph Stephens Warring, recording daily activities at Freer's Detroit home, 1907-1910. Inventories, n.d. and 1901-1921, of American, European, and Asian art in Freer's collection, often including provenance information; vouchers, 1884-1919, documenting his purchases; five volumes of scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeill Whistler, 1888-1931, labeled "Various," "Peacock Room," "Death, etc.," "Paris, etc.," and "Boston...London" ; three volumes of newsclippings, 1900-1930, concerning Freer and the opening of the Freer Gallery of Art.
Correspondence regarding Freer's gift and bequest to the Smithsonian Institution, 1902-1916; and photographs, ca. 1880-1930, of Freer, including portraits by Alvin Langdon Coburn and Edward Steichen, Freer with others, Freer in Cairo, China and Japan, Freer's death mask, and his memorial service, Kyoto, 1930; photographs of artists and others, including Thomas Dewing, Ernest Fenellosa, Katharine Rhoades taken by Alfred Stieglitz, Rosalind B. Philip, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Abbott H. Thayer, Dwight Tryon, and Whistler; and photographs relating to Whistler, including art works depicting him, grave and memorial monuments, works of art, the Peacock Room, and Whistler's memorial exhibition at the Copley Society.

Organization of the Papers
Organization of the Papers
This collection is organized into sixteen series.
Series 1: Biographical Data
Series 2: Correspondence
Subseries 2.1: Charles Lang Freer correspondence
Subseries 2.2: Charles Lang Freer letterpress books
Subseries 2.3: James McNeil Whistler correspondence
Subseries 2.4: Beatrix Godwin Whistler correspondence
Subseries 2.5: Richard Albert Canfield correspondence
Subseries 2.6: Katharine Nash Rhoades correspondence
Series 3:
Diaries
Subseries 3.1: Charles Lang Freer diaries
Subseries 3.2: Joseph Stephens Warring Diary
Series 4:
Writings and notes
Series 5:
Art inventories
Series 6:
Financial materials
Subseries 6.1: Railroad manufacturing business records
Subseries 6.2: Detroit Ferry Avenue house
Subseries 6.3: Yearly financial reports
Subseries 6.4: Personal accounts and stock holdings
Subseries 6.5: Vouchers
Subseries 6.6: Banking records
Subseries 6.7: Cashbooks
Series 7:
Exhibition loan files
Series 8:
Biblical manuscript files
Series 9:
American School of Archaeology in China file
Series 10:
Printed material
Subseries 10.1: Whistler scrapbooks
Subseries 10.2: Press cuttings books
Subseries 10.3: Newspaper clippings
Series 11:
Gift and bequest to the Smithsonian Institution
Series 12:
Photographs
Series 13:
Reproductions
Series 14:
Architectural drawings
Series 15:
Rubbings: Fenollosa and Freer memorial stone in Kyoto, Japan
Series 16:
Artifacts
Subseries 16.1: Death mask
Subseries 16.2: Memorial plaque

Biographical Note
Biographical Note
1854 February 25
Born in Kingston, New York
1873
Appointed accountant and paymaster of New York, Kingston and Syracuse Railroad by Frank J. Hecker (1846-1927)
1876
Moves to Indiana to work, with Hecker, for the Detroit and Eel River and Illinois Railroad
1880
Moves to Detroit, participates in organization of the Peninsular Car Works with Hecker
1883
Becomes vice president and secretary of Peninsular Car Company when it succeeds Peninsular Car Works
1883
Begins collecting European prints
1884
Peninsular Car Company constructs plant on Ferry Avenue
1887
Meets Howard Mansfield (1849-1938)
1887
Acquires proofs of 26 etchings, Venice, Second Series(1886), by James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903)
1887
Purchases a small Japanese fan attributed to Ogata Karin(1658-1715)
1887
Buys land on Ferry Avenue
1889
Meets Frederick Stuart Church (1826-1900) and Dwight William Tryon (1849-1925) in New York
1890
Commissions Wilson Eyre (1858-1944) to design house on Ferry Avenue, Detroit, Michigan
1890
On first trip to London, meets James McNeill Whistler(1834-1903)
1892
Moves to Ferry Avenue house
1892
Tryon and Thomas Wilmer Dewing (1851-1938) undertake decoration of reception rooms
1893
Lends American paintings to World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago
1893
Purchases first piece of Chinese art, a small painting of white herons by an anonymous Ming dynasty (1368-1644) artist
1894
Begins yearlong trip around the world, which includes visit to the Whistlers in Paris and first trip to Asia, stopping in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), India, China, and Japan
1896
Meets Matsuki Bunkya (1867-1940) in Boston
1899
Takes part in consolidation of railroad-car building companies then retires from active business
1900
Attends Exposition International Universelle in Paris
1900
Buys villa in Capri with Thomas S. Jerome
1901
Meets Siegfried Bing (1838-1905) in Paris and Ernest Fenollosa(1853-1908), who visits Freer in Detroit
1902
Meets Dikran Kelekian (1868-1951)
1902
Spends summer in Britain building Whistler collection
1902
Views Whistler's, Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room
1904
Purchases Whistler's Peacock Room
1904
Offers his art collections and funds to build a museum in which to house them to the Smithsonian Institution
1905
Smithsonian committee visits Freer in Detroit
1906
United States government formally accepts Freer's gift on January 24
1906
Freer signs Deed of Gift to Smithsonian Institution on May 5
1907
On second tour of Asia, meets Hara Tomitaro 1868-1939) in Yokohama, Japan
1908
Takes third trip to Asia, specifically to West Asia to study Rakka ware
1909
Tours Europe to study art museums
1909
On fourth trip to Asia, attends memorial ceremony for Fenollosa (d.1908 September) at Miidera, Japan, and meets Duanfang (1861-1911) in China
1910
On last trip to Asia, visits Longmen Buddhist caves in China
1911
Suffers stroke
1912
Lends selection of objects for exhibition at Smithsonian Institution
1913
Meets Eugene (1875-1957) and Agnes E. (1887-1970)Meyer
1913
Commissions Charles Adams Platt (1861-1933) to design museum building in Washington
1914
Meets Katharine Nash Rhoades (1885-1965) in Detroit
1915
Settles in New York City
1915
Site of future Freer Gallery of Art is determined
1916
Platt's plans for Freer Gallery are approved by Smithsonian Regents and Commission of Fine Arts and ground is broken in September
1918
After falling ill in Detroit, Freer travels to New York for treatment
1918
Work on the museum building is delayed by the war
1919
Freer appends codicil to will permitting acquisitions of Asian, Egyptian, and Near Eastern (West Asian) art
1919
Dies in New York City on 25 September and is buried in Kingston, New York
1919
Construction of Freer Gallery completed
1920
John Ellerton Lodge (1876-1942) is appointed director of the Freer Gallery
1923
Freer Gallery opens to the public on May 9
1930
Memorial ceremony for Freer is held at Koetsuji, Kyoto
Charles Lang Freer was a wealthy industrialist who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. He was a well-known collector of Asian art, and strongly supported the synthesis of Eastern art and Western art. One of his most famous acquisitions was James McNeill Whistler's Peacock Room.

Administration
Existence and Location of Copies note
Portions of the papers microfilmed by the Archives of American Art. Microfilm available at the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Library, the Archives of American Art, and through interlibrary loan.
Location of Originals
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Processing Information
Processed by archivist Colleen Hennessey and Linda Machado. Additional processing by archivist Rachael Cristine Woody.
Author
Finding aid prepared by Colleen Hennessey
Immediate Source of Acquisition note
Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.

Index
Index
Index to cross-referenced correspondents in the series Charles Lang Freer correspondence
Beal, Junius E.
See:
Warring, Joseph Stephens
Black, George M.
See:
Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Board of Education (Kingston, New York)
See:
Michael, M. J.
Bonner, Campbell
See:
University of Michigan
Boughton, George H.
See:
Yardley, F. C.
British Museum
See:
Binyon, Laurence; Hobson, R. L.
Brown, Harold H.
See:
Art Association of Indianapolis
Buchner, Evelyn B.
See:
Knoedler, M., and Company
Buckholder, C. H.
See:
Art Institute of Chicago
Butler, S. B.
See:
Unidentified correspondents
Carnegie Institute
See:
Balken, Edward Duff; Harshe, Robert B.
Carpenter, Newton H.
See:
Art Institute of Chicago
Caulkins, Horace James
See:
Pewabic Pottery
Chao, Shih-chin
See:
Gunn, Chu Su
Chicago & North Western Railway Co.
See:
Hughett, Marvin
Clark, Charles Upson
See:
Clark, Arthur B.
Cleveland Museum of Art
See:
Whiting, Frederic Allen
Columbia University
See:
Braun, W. A.; Gottheil, Richard; Hirth, Friederich
Commission of Fine Arts
See:
Moore, Charles
Corcoran Gallery of Art
See:
Minnigerode, C. Powell
Crocker, Anna B.
See:
Portland Art Association
Dannenberg, D. E.
See:
Karlbeck, Orvar
De Menoncal, Beatrice
See:
Lien, Hui Ch'ing Collection
De Ricci, Seymour
See:
Ricci, Seymour de
Defnet, William A., Mrs.,
See:
Franke, Ida M.
DeMotte
See:
Vigouroux, J.
Detroit Institute of Arts
See:
Detroit Museum of Art
Detroit Publishing Company
See:
Livingstone, W. A.
Detroit School of Design
See:
George Hamilton; Stevens, Henry
DeVinne Press
See:
Peters, Samuel T.; Witherspoon, A. S.
Dyrenforth, P. C.
See:
Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Eddy, Arthur J.
See:
Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Eggers, George Williams
See:
Art Institute of Chicago
Farr, Daniel H.
See:
Robinson and Farr
Farrand School (Detroit)
See:
Yendall, Edith
Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago)
See:
Laufer, Berthold
Flagg, Frederick J.
See:
Allen, Horace N.
Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University
See:
Forbes, Edward; Pope, Arthur Upham; Sachs, Paul J.
French, M. R.
See:
Art Institute of Chicago
Fu, Lan-ya
See:
Pang, Lai-ch'en
Fujii, Yoshio
See:
Yoshio, Fujii
Gerrity, Thomas
See:
Knoedler, M., and Company
Goupil Gallery
See:
Marchant, William
Gray, William J.
See:
Barr, Eva
Great Lakes Engineering Works
See:
Hoyt, H. W.
Grolier Club
See:
Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Heinemann, W.
See:
Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Holden, Edward S.
See:
West Point, U. S. Military Academy
Hudson, J. L.
See:
Weber, William C.
Hutchins, Harry B.
See:
University of Michigan
Hutchins, Charles L.
See:
Art Institute of Chicago
Kelekian, H. G.
See:
Kelekian, Dikran G.
Kelsey, Francis W.
See:
Warner, Langdon
Kent, H. W.
See:
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Lee, Kee Son
See:
Li, Chi-ch'un
Levy, John
See:
Schneider, A. K.
Library of Congress
See:
Rice, Richard A.; Wright, Helen
Louvre (Paris, France)
See:
Midgeon, Gaston
Matsuki, Z.
See:
Matsuki, Kihachiro
McKim, Mead and White
See:
White, Stanford
Mills, A. L., Colonel
See:
Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Miner, Luella
See:
Lien, Hui Ch'ing Collection
Minneapolis Institute of Arts
See:
Breck, Joseph; Van Derlip, John R.
Monif, R. Khan
See:
Rathbun, Richard
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
See:
Lodge, John Ellerton
Naser, Katen & Nahass
See:
Katen, K.
Nordlinger, Marie, Miss
See:
Meyer-Riefstahl, Marie
Panama Pacific International Exposition
See:
Moore, Charles C.; Trask, John E. D.
Peabody Museum
See:
Morse, Edward Sylvester
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
See:
Trask, John E. D.
Perry, Mary Chase, Miss.,
See:
Pewabic Pottery
Philip, Ronald M.
See:
Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Pope, G. D.
See:
Barr, Eva
Reinhart, A. G.
See:
Gottschalk, E.
Reitz, Sigisbert Chrétien Bosch
See:
Bosch-Reitz, Sigisbert Chrétien
Rutgers College
See:
Van Dyke, John C.
Saint-Gaudens, Augusta H.
See:
Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Saint-Gaudens, Homer
See:
Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Samurai Shokai
See:
Nomura, Yozo
San Francisco Art Association
See:
Laurvik, J. Nilsen
Scribner's, Charles, Sons
See:
Van Dyke, John C.
Shaw, Wilfred B.
See:
University of Michigan
Shirae, S. Z.
See:
Yamanaka and Company
Smith College
See:
Clark, Arthur B.
Smithsonian Institution
See:
Holmes, William Henry; Rathbun, Richard; Ravenel, William deC.; Walcott, Charles D.
Society of Arts and Crafts (Detroit)
See:
Plumb, Helen
Societe des Beaux-Arts
See:
Reid, Alexander
Stevens, George W.
See:
Toledo Museum of Art
Stratton, Mary Chase Perry
See:
Pewabic Pottery
Tanaka, Kichijiro
See:
Yamanaka and Company
Tuttle, William F.
See:
Art Institute of Chicago
Union Trust Company (Detroit)
See:
Philip, Rosalind Birnie
United States Military Academy
See:
West Point, U. S. Military Academy
University of Chicago
See:
Zug, George Breed
University of Pennsylvania, Univ. Mus.
See:
Gordon, George Bryon
Ushikubo, D. J. R.
See:
Yamanaka and Company
Wallis & Son
See:
Barr, Eva; Thompson, C. Croal Ward, Clarence See: Oberlin College
Warren, Edward K.
See:
Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Warring, Stephen
See:
Warring, Joseph Stephens
Watkin, Williams R. T.
See:
Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Watson, Margaret, Miss
See:
Parker, Margaret Watson
Whistler, Anna
See:
Stanton, Anna Whistler
Whiting, Almon C.
See:
Toledo Museum of Art
Williams College
See:
Rice, Richard A
Wright, F. G.
See:
Orbach and Company
Yatsuhashi, H.
See:
Yamanaka and Company
Index
Index to cross-referenced correspondence in the series Whistler correspondence
Bell, William
See:
Unidentified correspondents
Brown, Ernest
See:
Painter Etchers' Society, Committee
Cowen, John T.
See
subseries: Charles Lang Freer Correspondence
Ford, Sheridan
See:
Reid, Alexander
Haden, Francis Seymour
See:
Painter Etchers' Society, Committee
Haden, Francis Seymour, Lady
See:
Haden, Deborah Whistler
Leighton, Frederick, Baron
See:
Campbell, Lady Colin
Moore, Albert
See:
Reid, Alexander
Morley, Charles
See:
Pall Mall Gazette
Morris, Harrison S.
See:
Reid, Alexander
Pennell, Joseph
See:
Miscellaneous typescripts
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
See:
Reid, Alexander
Prange, F. G.
See:
Reid, Alexander
Societe des Beaux-Arts
See:
Reid, Alexander
Society of Portrait Painters
See:
Reid, Alexander
Stevens Fine Art
See:
Reid, Alexander
Studd, Arthur
See:
Miscellaneous typescripts
[Vanderbilt?], George, Mrs.
See:
George, Mrs.
Whistler, William McNeill, Mrs.
See:
Whistler, Nellie
Whistler Memorial Committee
See:
Miscellaneous typescripts
Index
Index to cross-referenced correspondence in the series Richard Albert Canfield correspondence
Albright[-Knox] Art Gallery
See:
Kurz, Charles M.; Sage, Cornelia Bentley
Linde, Max
See:
Grier, J.
Oppenheimer, Joseph
See:
Grier, J.
Pennell, Joseph
See:
Sage, Cornelia Bentley
Index
Index to cross-referenced correspondence in the series Katharine Nash Rhoades correspondence
Franke, Ida M.
See:
Defnet, Mrs. William A.
Watson, Margaret, Miss
See:
Parker, Margaret Watson

Bibliography
Bibliography
The following publications reference and shed light on items in the Freer papers.
Brunk, T.W.
(1997).
Annotated Charles L. Freer ceramic records inventory.
Thesis (Ph. D.). Cincinnati, Ohio: Union Institute, the Graduate School.
Lawton, T. & Merrill, L.
(1993).
Freer: A legacy of art.
Washington, D.C.:
Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution
with New York: H.N. Abrams.
Merrill, L. (ed.).
(1995).
With kindest regards: The correspondence of Charles Lang Freer and James McNeill Whistler 1890-1903.
Washington, D.C.: Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution in association with Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation note
Charles Lang Freer Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Restrictions on Access
Access is by appointment only, Monday through Thursday 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Please contact the Archives to make an appointment: AVRreference@si.edu.
Due to the fragility of the letterpress books, access is limited. Researchers are asked to view the microfilm version of the letterpress books. There are no other restrictions on the use of this collection.
Use
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.

Related Material
The Archives of American Art microfilmed portions of the Freer papers in 1992. The microfilm is available at the Archives of American Art's Washington D.C. office, the Freer Gallery of Art Library, and through interlibrary loan.

Custodial History note
Custodial History note
Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer

Other Finding Aids note
Other Finding Aids note
Electronic finding aid available.
Other Finding Aids note
Other Finding Aids note

Other Finding Aid
Other Finding Aid
Biblical Manuscripts and Gold Treasure collection

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Art, American--Collectors and collecting Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Art, Asian Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Art, Asian--Collectors and collecting Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Art--Collectors and collecting Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Boston (Mass.) Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Correspondence Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Detroit (Mich.) Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Diaries Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Financial records Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
London (England) Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Washington (D.C.) Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Washington, D.C., 20013
Phone: 202-633-0533
AVRreference@si.edu