Ernst Herzfeld Papers
FSA.A.06

Summary
Collection ID:
FSA.A.06
Creators:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948
Dates:
1903-1947
Languages:
Multiple languages
Collection is in English, Arabic, German, Hebrew, and Persian.
English; Arabic; German; Hebrew; Persian
Physical Description:
150 linear feet
circa 30,000 items
Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
An outstanding scholar in the field of Iranian studies, Ernst Herzfeld (1879--948) explored all phases of Near Eastern culture from the prehistoric period to Islamic times. This collection documents Herzfeld's excavations at Samarra, Persepolis, Pasargadae, and Aleppo and includes correspondence; field notebooks; drawings; sketchbooks; inventories of objects; "squeeze" copies of architectural details; and photographs.

Scope and Contents note
Scope and Contents note
Papers (1899--962) of German born archaeologist Ernst Emil Herzfeld (1879--948), a preeminent scholar of Near Eastern and Iranian studies. The collection measures 150 linear feet (circa 30,000 items) and documents Herzfeld's work as a pioneer in the field and sheds light on his excavations at Samarra, Persepolis, Pasargadae, and Aleppo. Formats include correspondence; field notebooks; drawings; sketchbooks; inventories of objects; "squeeze" copies of architectural details; and photographs.

Arrangement note
Arrangement note
This collection is organized into seven series.
Series 1: Travel journals
Series 2: Sketchbooks
Series 3: Notebooks
Series 4: Photographic files 1-42
Series 5: Drawings and maps
Series 6: Squeezes
Series 7: Samarra Expedition

Biographical/Historical note
Biographical/Historical note
The Ernst Herzfeld Papers document the career of Ernst Herzfeld (1879--948), a German architect, archaeologist, and historian of Islamic and Pre-Islamic studies. After training as an architect he studied archaeology under Delitzch from 1903 to 1906 at the excavations at Assur in Mesopotamia. A student of Latin, Greek, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Hebrew, Herzfeld received a doctorate in Humanistic Studies at universities in Munich and Berlin in 1907. His work with Friedrich Sarre to survey the monuments of the Tigris-Euphrates valleys resulted in landmark studies in architectural history, published in 1911 and 1920.
In 1920 Herzfeld was appointed to the chair of Historical Geography in Berlin and began his excavation at Samarra. Herzfeld's work there led to a six-volume publication. He published widely throughout his life on the sources of Islamic architecture and ornament, including the Royal Palace at Persepolis.
From 1934 until the end of his life Herzfeld spent his time producing many books and articles, lecturing, and working at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton (1936--945.) Many of his works continue to be published post-humously.
1879 July 23
Born in Celle, Germany.
1897
Received diploma from Joachimsthaler Gymnasium, Berlin.
1897-circa 1898
Fulfilled military service.
circa 1899
Studied architecture at the Technical University and Assyriology, art history, and philosophy at the Friedrich-Wilhems Universität in Berlin.
1903
Passed exam in structural engineering.
1903-1905
Assistant to Walter Andrae (1875-1956) in Assur.
1905-1906
Traveled throughout Iran and Iraq.
1907
Passed oral exam in February.
Excavation in Cilicia.
Awarded doctorate in Humanistic Studies by Friedrich-Wilhems Universtät zu Berlin. After receiving Ph.D. traveled extensively in Syria and Iraq with Friedrich Sarre, director of the Islamic Museum in Berlin.
1910
Herzfeld and Sarre jointly publish,
Iranische Felsreliefs
(Berlin, 1910).
1911-1913
Field Director under direction of Sarre during expedition to Samarra.
circa 1914
Drafted into service in France and Poland during World War I. Sent to Iraq where he functioned as a surveyor.
1916
Father died.
1917
Along with Friedrich Sarre and others, founded the German-Persian Society to increase cultural and economic exchange between Germany and Persia.
Appointed associate professor for Historical Geography and Art History of the Ancient Orient at Berlin.
1920
Appointed world's first full professor of Near Eastern Archeology. Begins excavation at Samarra.
1922
Mother died.
1923-1934
In Persia, where he completed many excavations and studies.
1928
Excavation at Pasargadae.
1931-1934
Appointed director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago and moved to Persepolis.
1934
As grandson of Jews, Nazi legislation expelling state employees of Jewish descent forced Herzfeld to retire as a professor employed by the state.
Moved to London.
1936
Moved to Boston. Lectured on Iranian history and appointed a member of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study.
Delivered Lowell Lectures.
1944
Retired from Princeton University.
1948 January 20
Died.

Administration
Existence and Location of Copies note
Microfiche available at the Freer Gallery of Art Library.
Processing Information note
The guide to the Ernst Herzfeld Papers was prepared by Joseph M. Upton in 1974. Partially unprocessed. Processing completed by Colleen Hennessey and Xavier Courouble.
Author
Finding aid prepared by Joseph M. Upton and Colleen Hennessey
Immediate Source of Acquisition note
Ernst Herzfeld donated his papers to the Freer Gallery of Art in 1946.

Bibliography
Bibliography
Ann C. Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser, 2004: "Ernst Herzfeld and the development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Boston, Massasuchetts: Brill."

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Access note
Access is by appointment only, Monday through Thursday 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Please contact the Archives to make an appointment: AVRreference@si.edu.
Conditions Governing Use note
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Preferred Citation note
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946

Custodial History note
Custodial History note
It was his friend and colleague, Richard Ettinghausen, then curator of Near Eastern art at the Freer Gallery of Art, who encouraged Ernst Herzfeld to donate his papers to the Smithsonian Institution. Since the original gift in 1946, there have been a number of significant additions. Herzfeld's sister, Charlotte Bradford, arranged for several donations to be made from the estate in 1950 and 1951, and, at her request, papers left by Herzfeld in Cairo were given to the Freer Gallery by Prof. Murad Kamil of Fuad I University in 1952. After extensive investigation, Herzfeld's final edited manuscript of "The Persian Empire", thought to have been lost, was discovered and given to the Freer Gallery in 1965 by the French Institute of Oriental Archaeology in Cairo. An old friend, the numismatist George C. Miles, added substantially to the papers in 1960 and 1970.

Other Finding Aids note
Other Finding Aids note

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Anistas Mari, al-Karmili, ab, 1866-1947 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Becker, Carl Heinrich, 1876-1933 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Bell, Gertrude Lowthian, 1868-1926 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Berchem, Max van, 1863-1921 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum. Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Krefter, Friedrich, 1898-1995 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Meyer, Eduard, 1855-1930 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sarre, Friedrich Paul Theodor, 1865-1945 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Verlag Philipp von Zabern. Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Abbasids Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Aerial photography Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ancient Near Eastern Art Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Antiquities Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Architectural drawing Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Art of the Islamic World Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Articles Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ayyubids Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Bakun, Tall-e (Iran) Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Blueprints Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Clippings Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Correspondence Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Decoration and ornament Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Description and travel Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Diaries Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Drawings Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Excavations (Archaeology) Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
History Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Inscriptions Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Iran Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Iraq Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Journals (accounts) Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Lebanon Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Mesopotamia Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Notebooks Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Numismatics Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Paper Squeezes Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Papyrus Title Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Pasargadae (Extinct city) Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Persepolis (Iran) Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Pottery Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Religious buildings Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Rubbings Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sāmarrāʼ (Iraq) Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sketchbooks Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sketches Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Syria Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Taq-e Bostan Site (Iran) Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Turkey Geographical Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Washington, D.C., 20013
Phone: 202-633-0533
AVRreference@si.edu