Guide to the Anne Chapman papers on the Tolupan (Jicaque)
NAA.1996-15

Summary
Collection ID:
NAA.1996-15
Creators:
Chapman, Anne, 1922-2010
Dates:
1947
1955-1994
bulk 1955-1960
Languages:
Multiple languages
The collection contains materials in English, Spanish, and some French. There is also some Tol (Jicaque, Tolupan) vocabulary.
English; French; Spanish; Tol
Physical Description:
4 linear feet
7 document boxes, 2 card file boxes, and 1 oversize map folder
30 sound recordings
1 floppy disc
Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
This collection reflects anthropologist Anne Chapman's studies of the Tolupan (Jicaque) of Honduras. The collection also contains her dissertation and the first two issues of the journal
Anthropos
.

Scope and Contents note
Scope and Contents note
This collection contains the professional papers of Anne Chapman, primarily documenting her ethnographic work among the Tolupan (Jicaque) in Montaña de la Flor, Honduras. Included are field notes with detailed indices; detailed genealogies; sound recordings; transcripts of some of the recordings; a map; photographs; and annotated photocopies of the photographs. The collection also contains her dissertation on the Jicaque, Paya, Sumu, Miskito and Matagalpa; copies of the journal Anthropos, which she helped published; and a computer disk that has not yet been examined.

Arrangement note
Arrangement note
This collection is arranged into 7 series: 1) Genealogies; 2) Field Notes; 3) PhD Dissertation; 4) Anthropos Journal; 5) Sound Recordings; 6) Photographs; 7) Born Digital Records.

Biographical Note
Biographical Note
Anne MacKaye Chapman was born in 1922 in Los Angeles, California. She left for Mexico in 1940, enrolling at the Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia (ENAH) in Mexico City. At the ENAH, Chapman studied with Paul Kirchhoff, Wigberto Jiménez Moreno, and Miguel Covarrubias. Inspired by the work of Covarrubias, Chapman and her colleagues published Anthropos, a journal combining art with articles on anthropology and politics. Only two editions were ever published, both in 1947, due to limited resources. Chapman conducted her first ethnographic fieldwork as a student among Mayan communities in Chiapas, Mexico --first, among the Tzeltales under Sol Tax, and later among the Tzoziles under Alfonso Villa Rojas. She eventually earned her Master's degree in Anthropology in 1951 from the ENAH; her Master's thesis, entitled La Guerra de los Aztecas contra los Tepanecas, used Clausewitz's theories on war to analyze the defeat of the Tepanecas by the Aztecs to gain their independence in the early 15th century.
Chapman returned to the U.S. in the 1950s, earning her PhD in Anthropology from Columbia University in New York City in 1958. Her dissertation was entitled An Historical Analysis of the Tropical Forest Tribes on the Southern Border of Mesoamerica. While at Columbia, she studied with Conrad Arensberg and worked as an assistant to Karl Polanyi from 1953-55. Another professor, William Duncan Strong, introduced her to the Tolupan (Jicaque) of Honduras. After being awarded funds by the Fulbright Foundation and the Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM), Chapman began her fieldwork in 1955 among the Tolupan in Montaña de la Flor, Honduras. She would return for a period of several months every year through 1960 for her research, but maintained her relationship with the community for the rest of her life. During her fieldwork, Chapman primarily worked with Alfonso Martinez. Through him, Chapman was able to make a study of Tolupan oral tradition and social organization, as well as to elaborate detailed genealogies of the community. Her research eventually resulted in a book, Les Enfants de la Mort: Univers Mythique des Indiens Tolupan (Jicaque), published in 1978; a revised English text was published in 1992 under the title Master of Animals: Oral tradition of the Tolupan Indians, Honduras. Alfonso Martinez died of measles in 1969.
Chapman also conducted ethnographic research among the Lenca of Honduras, starting in 1965-66, and continuing through the 1980s. Her work followed up on analysis by Kirchhoff on "cultural areas," particularly Mesoamerica. She sought to address a doubt raised by Kirchhoff about whether the Lenca should be considered a Mesoamerican group, ultimately resolving the question in the affirmative in an article entitled "Los Lencas de Honduras en el siglo XVI," published in 1978. In addition, in 1985-86 she published a two-volume study of Lenca rituals and tradition titled Los Hijos del Copal y la Candela.
In 1964, Chapman was invited to join the team of archaeologist Annette Laming-Emperaire on a project in Tierra del Fuego. Although not an archaeologist by training, Chapman accepted for the opportunity to meet Lola Kiepja, one of the last few living Selk'nam (Ona) of Tierra del Fuego. After finishing the archaeology project, Chapman met with Lola and recorded her speaking and singing in Selk'nam, as well as her memories of life as a Selk'nam. Although Lola passed away in 1966, Chapman was able to continue working with the remaining Selk'nam in Tierra del Fuego. In 1976, she co-produced a film about the Selk'nam along with Ana Montes, The Onas: Life and Death in Tierra del Fuego. In 1985, she expanded her fieldwork to include the remaining Yahgans in Tierra del Fuego, Chile.
In 1961, Chapman became a member of the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, working under Claude Lévi-Strauss until 1969, and eventually retiring from the center in 1987. During her long career as an ethnographer, she was associated with various other research centers in Europe and the Americas, including: the Musée de l'Homme in Paris, France; the Research Institute for the Study of Man in New York City; the Instituto Hondureño de Antropología in Tegucigalpa, Honduras; and the Instituto Nacional de Antropología in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Towards the end of her life, Chapman resided primarily in Buenos Aires, working and writing there. Chapman passed away at age 88 on June 12, 2010 in a Paris hospital.
Sources Consulted
Chapman, Anne MacKaye. 2005. A Genealogy of my Professors and Informants. Accessed on January 13, 2014 at: http://www.thereedfoundation.org/rism/chapman/articles.htm.
Chapman, Anne MacKaye. [Accession File]. National Anthropological Archive, Smithsonian Institution
Gonzalez Montes, Ana. 2010. La mujer que habló con los últimos onas. Pagina 12, June 17. Accessed on January 13, 2014 at http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/sociedad/3-147733-2010-06-17.html.
Nash, June. 2010. In Memoriam: Anne MacKaye Chapman. Anthropology News 51(7): 41.
1922
Born in Los Angeles, California
1947
Co-publishes
Anthropos
journal with other students in Mexico City
1951
Earns Master’s degree from the Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia (ENAH) in Mexico City
1953-1955
Works as an assistant for Karl Polanyi at Columbia University
1955
Begins Tolupan (Jicaque) fieldwork in Montaña de la Flor, Honduras
1958
Earns PhD from Columbia University
1961
Member of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France Associate of the Musée de l’Homme in Paris, France
1964
Begins works with the Selk’nam (Ona) of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina
1965
Begins fieldwork with the Lenca in Intibuca, Honduras
1967
Receives Doctorate from the University of Paris, Sorbonne
1968
Fellow, Research Institute for the Study of Man in New York City
1979
Associate, Instituto Hondureño de Antropología in Tegucigalpa, Honduras
1981
Receives Doctorate from the University of Paris, René-Déscartes
1985
Begins fieldwork among the remaining Yahgans of Tierra del Fuego, Chile
1986
Associate, Instituto Nacional de Antropología in Buenos Aires, Argentina
1987
Retires from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
2010
Passes away on June 12 at the age of 88

Administration
Processing Information note
The papers of Anne Chapman were received partially organized. The processing archivist rehoused the collection, while maintaining existing groupings and arrangement. Where descriptive notes existed on Chapman's original folders, the notes were transcribed onto the new housing, and copies retained for reference. The processing archivist organized the collection into seven series. Original folder titles were retained with titles assigned by the archivist placed within square brackets. Negatives, oversized materials (one map), and electronic files were separated and replaced with notes indicating original and new locations.
Processed by Theresa Polk, January 2014.
Encoded by Lorain Wang, February 2014.
Author
Finding aid prepared by Theresa Polk
Immediate Source of Acquisition note
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Anne Chapman in 1996 and 1997.

Selected Bibliography
Selected Bibliography
1947 La Antropología Aplicada.
Anthropos
1(1): 5-11.
1951
La Guerra de los Aztecas contra los Tepanecas.
Master's thesis. Mexico, DF: Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia.
1958
An Historical Analysis of the Tropical Forest Tribes on the Southern Border of Mesoamerica
. PhD Dissertation. New York City, NY: Columbia University.
1960 Dual Organization Among the Jicaques of La Montaña de la Flor, Honduras.
Akten des 34 Internationalen Americanisten-Kongresses
: 578-584.
1961 Mythologie et Ethnique chez les Jicaques.
L'Homme
1(1): 95-102.
1962 Survivances de l'Organisation Dualiste chez les Jicaques.
L'Homme
2(1): 91-101.
1967a
Analyse de la Muthologie des Tolupan (Jicaque), Honduras
. Doctorat de 3eme Cycle, Université de Paris-Sorbonne.
1967b Missions de Honduras et en Terre de Feu.
L'Homme
7(1): 85-88.
1970 Chamanisme et Magie des Ficelles chez les Tolupan (Jicaque) du Honduras.
Journal de la Société des Américanistes
59: 43-64.
1971a Mitologia y Etnica entre los Jicaques.
América Indígena
31(3): 764-71.
1971b Supervivencias de Organizacion Dual entre los Jicaques de la Montaña de la Flor.
América Indígena
31(3): 751-63.
1971c with A. Jacquard. Un Isolat d'Amerique Centrale: Les Indiens Jicaques du Honduras. In
Génétiques et Populations: Travaux et Documents
. Paris: Institut National d'Etudes. p. 163-85.
1978
Les Enfants de la Mort: Univers Mythique des Indiens Tolupan (Jicaque)
. Mexico, DF: Mission Archéologique et Ethnologique Française au Mexique.
1982
Los Hijos de la Muerte: universe Mítico de los Tolupan-Jicaques (Honduras)
. Mexico, DF: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.
1984 ¿Los Tolupan de la Montaña de la Flor: Otra Cultura que Desaparece?
América Indígena
44(3): 467-84.
1992
Masters of Animals: Oral Traditions of the Tolupan Indians, Honduras
. Philadelphia, PA: Gordon and Breach.

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation note
Anne Chapman papers on the Tolupan (Jicaque), National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Conditions Governing Access note
No restrictions on access.
Conditions Governing Use note
Anne Chapman retained the publishing rights to her Tolupan materials. These rights were passed on to her executor after her death.

Related Archival Materials note
Other materials relating to Anne Chapman at the National Anthropological Archives include three photographs of Lola Kiepja, a Selk'nam woman from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, located within Photo Lot 97 Division of Ethnography photo collection. The National Museum of Natural History also has seven pre-Columbian objects in its collection donated by Chapman from Intibuca, Honduras (Accession 284737), including projectile points, a core, a blade/scraper, and a metate-maker. In addition, the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections has two phonograph records of Chapman's Selk'nam (Ona) chants of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina within its Folkways Records Collection, 1948-1986.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Constans, J. Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Martínez, Alfonso Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Quilici, J.C. Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ethnology--Central America Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Field notes Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Genealogies Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Honduras Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Indians of Central America Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Jicaque Indians Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Jicaque language Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Matagalpa Indians Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Miskito Indians Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Oral tradition Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Paya Indians Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Social structure Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sound recordings Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland, Maryland , 20746
Phone: 301.238.1300
naa@si.edu