William C. Sturtevant papers, 1952-2007
NAA.2008-24
Digitized Content

Summary
Collection ID:
NAA.2008-24
Creators:
Sturtevant, William C.
Dates:
1952-2007
Languages:
Multiple languages
English, Muskogee, Choctaw, Burmese, French, Spanish, and German.
Collection is primarily in English. Some of Sturtevant's notes contain the following languages: Muskogee, Choctaw, Burmese, French, Spanish, and German.
Muskogee; Choctaw; Burmese; French; Spanish; German.
Physical Description:
220 linear feet
The total extent of the collection is 191.41 linear feet (consisting of 473 document boxes and 2 record boxes) plus 254 sound recordings, 94 computer disks, 42 card file boxes, 85 oversize folders, 9 rolled items, 18 binder boxes, and 3 oversize boxes. Of the total extent, 4.79 linear feet (14 boxes) are restricted.
Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
This collection contains the professional papers of William Curtis Sturtevant and documents his activities as Curator of North American Ethnology at the National Museum of Natural History, his work as the editor-in-chief of the Handbook of North American Indians, his research among the Seminole and Iroquois people, and other professional activities. The collection is comprised of books, sound recordings, research and field notes, realia, artifacts, clippings, microfilm, negatives, slides, photographs, manuscripts, correspondence, memorandums, card files, exhibition catalogs, articles, and bibliographies.

Scope and Contents note
Scope and Contents note
This collection contains the professional papers of William Curtis Sturtevant and documents his activities as Curator of North American Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, his work as the editor-in-chief of the Handbook of North American Indians, his research among the Seminole and Iroquois people, and his involvement in various professional activities. The collection is comprised of research and field notes, sound recordings, realia, clippings, negatives, slides, prints, published and unpublished writings, correspondence, memorandums, conference papers and meeting notes, card files, exhibition catalogs, articles, bibliographies, student files such as class notes and papers from Sturtevant's years as an anthropology student, teaching materials including lecture notes and exams, daily planners, passports, military records, artwork including prints and lithographs, maps, and computer files.
The materials in this collection document Sturtevant's career as a preeminent North American ethnologist, museum curator, university professor, his role as General Editor of the Handbook of North American Indians, and his contributions to the field of Anthropology. From his early work with the Seminole Indians of Florida to his forays into Burma, and his decades-long study of how Native Americans have been depicted in artistic and popular culture, Sturtevant's diverse intellectual interests are represented in his research files. A copious note taker, Sturtevant captured his observations and opinions of everything from meetings with colleagues to museum exhibits. Sturtevant's commitment to the anthropological profession can be found in the notes and programs of the many conferences, symposiums, and lecture series he attended and at which he presented. He also held numerous leadership positions in various professional associations and sat on the board of directors/trustees for several cultural organizations including Survival International and the Museum of the American Indian-Heye Foundation. Sturtevant was respected for his vast knowledge of indigenous peoples and he received a voluminous amount of correspondence from colleagues who often included copies of their papers and grant proposals. He kept many of these works, which, it appears he used as reference material. Sturtevant's own work is reflected in his writings; he published over 200 scholarly papers, articles, and books.

Arrangement note
Arrangement note
This collection is organized in 14 series: 1. Correspondence, 1951-2008; 2. Research Files, 1851, 1860s, 1880s, 1890, 1939-2006; 3. Writings, 1952-2006; 4. Professional Activities, 1952-2006; 5. Smithsonian, 1954-2008; 6. Handbook of North American Indians, 1971-2007; 7. Biographical Files, 1933-2007; 8. Student Files, 1944-1985; 9. Subject Files, 1902-2002; 10. Photographs, 1927-2004; 11. Artwork, 1699-1998; 12. Maps, 1949-1975; 13. Sound Recordings, 1950-2000; 14. Computer Files, 1987-2006.

Biographical/Historical note
Biographical/Historical note
William C. Sturtevant (1926-2007), preeminent North American ethnologist, museum curator, and university professor, was best known for his contributions to Seminole ethnology, as curator of North American Ethnology in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, and for his work as the general editor of the Handbook of North American Indians.
Sturtevant's passion for studying Native peoples began at a young age. In third grade "after a class on American Indians, he asked his father what kind of people study Indians, and his father replied, 'Anthropologists.' Sturtevant decided then that he would make anthropology his career" (Merrill 11). After graduating with honors from the University of California at Berkeley in 1949, Sturtevant went on to Yale University to complete his graduate work in anthropology. When it came time to decide on what area of North America he should focus his research, one of his faculty members at Yale, Irving Rouse, "suggested he consider the Seminoles of south Florida. By the end of his first fieldwork season, Sturtevant was convinced that the dearth of ethnographic information about these Seminoles and their status as one of the least acculturated of all North American Indian societies justified ethnographic research among them and offered the possibility of making an important contribution to North American ethnology" (Merrill 13). Sturtevant spent the summers of 1950 and 1951 conducting preliminary fieldwork among the Mikasuki-speaking Seminole and in 1952 he took up temporary residence at Big Cypress Reservation to undertake research for his dissertation, "The Mikasuki Seminole: Medical Beliefs and Practices." This work focused on Seminole medicine, but also included Sturtevant's analysis of Seminole worldview, religion, history, inter-ethnic relations, material culture, economy, kinship, language, and social organization.
In 1954, while he was finishing his dissertation, Sturtevant made the transition from student of anthropology to professional anthropologist. He was hired as an instructor in Yale's Anthropology Department and began his career in museum work as an assistant curator of anthropology at the Yale Peabody Museum. After receiving his PhD from Yale in 1955, Sturtevant moved on to the Smithsonian Institution, where he accepted a position as a research anthropologist at the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE). This position afforded Sturtevant the chance to continue to explore his many research interests in ways that a full time professorship or museum curatorship could not. Over the next ten years he studied the Catawba in South Carolina; the Seneca and Cayuga nations of the Iroquois League in New York, Oklahoma, and Ontario; continued his work with the Seminole; visited European museums to examine early ethnographic examples and possible European prototypes of eastern North American Indian material culture; and spent a year in Burma. In 1963, Sturtevant and his wife, Theda Maw, the daughter of a prominent Burmese family, took their three young children to Burma so that they could visit with Maw's family. Sturtevant took this as an opportunity to branch out from his Native American research and spent the year visiting neighborhoods in Rangoon and villages in the surrounding countryside, examining archival materials, studying the Burmese language, learning about Burmese clothing and other aspects of the culture, and taking photographs. He also collected 386 items of clothing and other objects for the Smithsonian.
When Sturtevant returned from Burma, he found the BAE had been dissolved. In 1965, he was transferred from the now-defunct BAE to the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), where he became curator of North American Ethnology, a position he held for the next forty-two years. During his tenure at NMNH Sturtevant oversaw all the North American ethnology collections, planned exhibitions, served on committees, and sponsored interns and fellows. One of Sturtevant's primary duties at NMNH was serving as the General Editor of the Handbook of North American Indians, "a major multi-volume reference work summarizing anthropological, linguistic, and historical knowledge about native peoples north of Mexico" (Jackson). Each volume was designed to represent a geographic or topical area of Americanist study. As General Editor, Sturtevant selected volume editors, chapter authors, oversaw office staff, and proofread manuscripts over the course of production.
Besides focusing on the Handbook, much of Sturtevant's time was taken up by responsibilities he held outside the Institution. Sturtevant was extremely involved in professional anthropological associations and held many leadership positions. Fresh out of graduate school, he began a three-year term on the Board of Governors of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1957. He later became a member of the executive committee of the Florida Anthropological Society, served as book-review editor and associate editor of the American Anthropologist from 1962-1968, was a member of the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Anthropological Research in Museums and was both vice president and president of the committee once it became the Council for Museum Anthropology, was on the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Archives, served three terms on the Board of Trustees of the Museum of the American Indian-Heye Foundation from 1976-1982 and was appointed to a fourth term between 1984 and 1986, and sat on the Board of Directors of Survival International from 1982-1988. He was President of the American Society for Ethnohistory, the American Ethnological Society, the American Anthropological Association, and the Anthropological Society of Washington. Sturtevant also taught classes at Johns Hopkins University as an adjunct professor in the Department of Anthropology, served as a consultant on exhibits at other museums, and reviewed manuscripts for scholarly publications.
Sturtevant remained active in the profession throughout his later years. After divorcing Theda Maw in 1986, he married Sally McLendon, a fellow anthropologist, in 1990 and they undertook several research projects together. Sturtevant was recognized for his dedication and contributions to the field of anthropology in 1996 when he was awarded an honorary doctorate in humane letters by Brown University, and in 2002 when his colleagues published a festschrift in his honor, Anthropology, History, and American Indians: Essays in Honor of William Curtis Sturtevant.
Sturtevant died on March 2, 2007 at the Collingswood Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in Rockville, MD after suffering from emphysema.
Sources Consulted
Estrada, Louie. 2007. William C. Sturtevant; Expert on Indians. Washington Post, March 17. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/16/AR2007031602273.html, accessed August 31, 2012.
Jackson, Jason Baird. 2007. William C. Sturtevant (1926-2007). http://museumanthropology.blogspot.com/2007/03/william-c-sturtevant-1926-2007.html, accessed August 31, 2012.
Merrill, William L. 2002. William Curtis Sturtevant, Anthropologist. In Anthropology, History, and American Indians: Essays in Honor of William Curtis Sturtevant. William L. Merrill and Ives Goddard, eds. Pp. 11-36. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
1926
Born July 26 in Morristown, NJ
1944
Entered the University of California at Berkeley as a second-semester freshman
1944
Attended summer school at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico in Mexico City where he took courses on Mexican archaeology and South American ethnology
1945
Drafted into the United States Navy
1946
Received an honorable discharge from the Navy with the rank of pharmacist's mate third class and returned to UC Berkeley
1947
Attended the University of New Mexico's summer field school in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
1949
January: Received his Bachelor's degree with honors in anthropology from UC Berkeley
1949
Began graduate studies at Yale University
1950-1951
Spent the summers of 1950 and 1951 in Florida conducting fieldwork among the Mikasuki-speaking Seminole
1951
Conducted his first research study of the Iroquois, a classification of Seneca musical instruments, their construction and use, with Harold Conklin
1952
May: Moved to Big Cypress Reservation in Florida to conduct research for his dissertation. He focused on Seminole medicine, but also collected physical anthropological data such as blood-type frequencies, handedness, and color blindness
1952
July 26: Married Theda Maw
1954
Hired by Yale University as an instructor in the Department of Anthropology and as an assistant curator of anthropology in the Yale Peabody Museum
1955
Received PhD in anthropology from Yale University
1956
Joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) as a research anthropologist
1957
Began a three-year term on the Board of Governors of the Anthropological Society of Washington
1957
Traveled to Rock Hill, South Carolina to collect linguistic data from Sam Blue, the last member of the Catawba tribe to have maintained some proficiency in the Catawba language. While there, he made a small collection of Catawba pottery for the United States National Museum
1957-1958
Spent seven weeks continuing his research among the New York Seneca
1959
Returned to Florida to study Seminole ethnobotany. He also collected ethnographic materials, especially objects made for the tourist market, which he deposited in the United States National Museum
1959-1960
Member of the executive committee of the Florida Anthropological Society
1960
July and August: Visited 17 European museums to examine early ethnographic examples and possible European prototypes of eastern North American Indian material culture
1961-1962
Spent the summers of these years conducting ethnographic fieldwork among the Seneca-Cayuga in Oklahoma
1962
October: Visited the Six Nations Reserve in Ontario, Canada to conduct fieldwork among the Seneca and Cayuga there
1962-1968
Book-review editor and associate editor of the American Anthropologist
1963
October: Spent the year in Burma; visited neighborhoods in Rangoon and villages in the surrounding countryside, examined photographs in several archives, studied the Burmese language, and read extensively about the country's history and culture. Assembled notes on Burmese clothing and other aspects of the culture, took hundreds of photographs, and made a collection of 386 items of clothing and other objects for the Smithsonian
1964
Visited Inle Lake in the Southern Shan States southeast of Mandalay, where he examined local approaches to artificial island agriculture
1964-1981
Became a member of the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Anthropological Research in Museums, which became the Council for Museum Anthropology in 1974. Sturtevant was the Council's first vice president, serving two terms between 1974 and 1978, and was its president from 1978 to 1981
1965
Became curator of North American Ethnology in the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History after the dissolution of the BAE
1965-1966
President of the American Society for Ethnohistory
1966
Named the editor of the Handbook of North American Indians
1967-1968
Fulbright scholar and lecturer at Oxford University's Institute of Social Anthropology
1969
Began serving on the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Archives
1974-1989
Adjunct Professor in the Department of Anthropology at Johns Hopkins University
1976-1982
Served three terms on the Board of Trustees of the Museum of the American Indian-Heye Foundation and was appointed to a fourth term between 1984 and 1986
1977
President of the American Ethnological Society
1980-1981
President of the American Anthropological Association
1981
Spent part of the spring semester at the University of California Berkeley as a Regents Lecturer
1982-1988
Board of Directors of Survival International
1986
Divorced Theda Maw
1986-1987
Smithsonian Fellow at Oxford University's Worcester College
1990
Married Sally McLendon
1992
President of the Anthropological Society of Washington
1996
Awarded an honorary doctorate in humane letters at Brown University
2007
Died March 2 in Rockville, MD

Administration
Processing Information note
The papers of William C. Sturtevant were received partially organized. Approximately half of the records were stored in record boxes and organized by theme such as a particular research topic or writing project. The rest of the records were unorganized and stored in oversized boxes. The archivist imposed an arrangement scheme upon these materials by adding them to existing series and creating new series and subseries. Original folder titles were retained. Folder titles assigned by the archivist are indicated by square brackets. Files have been rehoused in acid free folders. The archivist kept existing groupings and organized the collection into fourteen series. Restricted materials were separated and replaced with notes indicating original and new locations. Oversized materials were separated and placed in oversize folders and boxes. Processed by Christy Fic and Jeanine Nault, 2012. Catalog record created by Carrie Gehrer, 2009.
Separated Materials note
One video tape, "Seminole History and Tradition", was transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives. Series 2.2, Tukabahchee Plate: Glass negative of spectrogram from FBI (Box 135), removed for storage with other glass plate negatives.
Author
Finding aid prepared by Christy Fic and Jeanine Nault
Sponsor
The papers of William C. Sturtevant were processed with the assistance of a Wenner-Gren Foundation Historical Archives Program grant awarded to Dr. Ives Goddard. Digitization and preparation of these materials for online access has been funded through generous support from the Arcadia Fund.
Immediate Source of Acquisition note
These papers were transferred to the National Anthropological Archives by the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History.

Selected Bibliography
Selected Bibliography
1953 Chakaika and the "Spanish Indians:" Documentary Sources Compared with Seminole Tradition. Tequesta 13:35-73.
1954 The Medicine Bundles and Busks of the Florida Seminole. Florida Anthropologist 7(2):31-70.
1954 The Mikasuki Seminole: Medical Beliefs and Practices. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Yale University.
1955 Notes on Modern Seminole Traditions of Osceola. Florida Historical Quarterly 33(3-4):206-217.
1956 Osceola's Coats? Florida Historical Quarterly 34(4):315-328.
1956 R.H. Pratt's Report on the Seminole in 1879. Florida Anthropologist 9(1):1-24.
1956 A Seminole Personal Document. Tequesta 16:55-75.
1957 Anthropology as a Career. Smithsonian Information Leaflet, 100. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
1958 Siouan Languages in the East. American Anthropologist 60(4):738-743.
1959 A Suggestion for Field Recordings. Ethnomusicology 3(2):75-76.
1960 A Seminole Medicine Maker. In In the Company of Man: Twenty Portraits by Anthropologists. Joseph B. Casagrande, ed. Pp. 505-532. New York: Harper and Brothers.
1960 A Technique for Ethnographic Note-Taking. American Anthropologist 61(4):677-678.
1962 A Newly-Discovered 1838 Drawing of a Seminole Dance. Florida Anthropologist 15(3):73-82.
1962 Spanish-Indian Relations in Southeastern North America. Ethnohistory 9(1):41-94.
1963 Seminole Myths of the Origins of Races. Ethnohistory 10(1):80-86.
1964 John Mann Goggin, 1916-1963. American Anthropologist 66(2): 385-394.
1965 Ethnographic Details in the American Drawings of John White, 1577-1590. Ethnohistory 12(1):54-63.
1967 Guide to Field Collecting of Ethnographic Specimens. Smithsonian Institution Information Leaflet, 503. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
1967 Seminole Men's Clothing. In Essays on the Verbal and Visual Arts. Proceedings of the 1966 Annual Spring Meeting, American Ethnological Society. June Helm, ed. Pp. 160-174. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
1969 History and Ethnography of Some West Indian Starches. In The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals. Peter J. Ucko and G.W. Dimbleby, eds. Pp. 177-199. London: Gerald Duckworth and Co.
1971 Creek into Seminole. In North American Indians in Historical Perspective. Eleanor Burke Leacock and Nancy Oestreich Lurie, eds. Pp. 92-128. New York: Random House.
1974 Woodsmen and Villagers of the East. In The World of the American Indian. Jules B. Billard, ed. Pp. 101-149. Washington, D.C: National Geographic Society.
1975 Two 1761 Wigwams at Niantic, Connecticut. American Antiquity 40(4):437-444.
1976 First Visual Images of Native America. In First Images of America: The Impact of the New World on the Old. Fredi Chiappelli, ed. Pp. 417-454. Berkeley: University of California Press.
1977 The Hole-and-Slot Heddle. In Ethnographic Textiles of the Western Hemisphere: Irene Emery Roundtable on Museum Textiles, 1976 Proceedings. Irene Emery and Patricia Fiske, eds. Pp. 325-355. Washington, D.C: The Textile Museum.
1978 Oklahoma Seneca-Cayuga. In Handbook of North American Indians, volume 15, Northeast. Bruce G. Trigger, ed. Pp. 537-543. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
1979 Southeastern Indian Formulas. In Native North American Spirituality of the Eastern Woodlands. Elisabeth Tooker, ed. Pp. 282-293. New York: Paulist Press.
1979 Black Drink and Other Caffeine-Containing Beverages among Non-Indians. In Black Drink: A Native American Tea. Charles M. Hudson, ed. Pp. 150-165. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
1980 The First Inuit Depicition by Europeans. Etudes Inuit; Inuit Studies 4(1-2):47-49.
1980 National Dress and Citizen Dress: What Indian Delegates Wore to Washington. American Fabrics and Fashions 120:14-15.
1981 John Ridge on Cherokee Civilization in 1826. Journal of Cherokee Studies 6(2):79-91.
1983 Seneca Masks. In The Power of Symbols: Masks and Masquerade in the Americas. N. Ross Crumrine and Marjorie Halpin, eds. Pp. 39-47. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
1983 Tribe and State in the Sixteenth and Twentieth Centuries. In The Development of Political Organization in Native North America. Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society, 1979. Elisabeth Tooker, ed. Pp. 3-16. Washington, D.C.: American Ethnological Society.
1984 A Structural Sketch of Iroquois Ritual. In Extending the Rafters: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Iroquoian Studies. Michael K. Foster, Jack Campisi, and Marianne Mithun, eds. Pp. 133-152. Albany: State University of New York Press.
1986 The Meanings of Native American Art. In The Arts of the North American Indian: Native Traditions in Evolution. Edwin L. Wade, ed. Pp. 23-44. New York: Hudson Hills Press, and Tulsa, Oklahoma: Philbrook Art Center.
1991 Indian America: First Visual Impressions. In The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Silvio A. Bedini, ed. Pp. 337-345. New York: Simon and Schuster.
1994 The Misconnection of Guale and Yamasee with Muskogean. International Journal of American Linguistics 60(2):139—148.
1995 with Shepard Krech III. The Uses of Ethnographic Records. In Preserving the Anthropological Record. Sydel Silverman and Nancy J. Parezo, eds. Pp. 85-94. New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research.
1996 with JoAllyn Archambault. Museums and Collectors. In Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Frederick E. Hoxie, ed. Pp. 407-410. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
1996 with JoAllyn Archambault. 150 Years of Native American Research at the Smithsonian. AnthroNotes 18(3):8-11.
1998 Tupinamba Chiefdoms? In Chieftains and Chieftancy in the Americas. Elsa M. Redmond, ed. Pp. 138-149. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
1999. Scalping. In Violence in America: An Encyclopedia. Ronald Gottesman, ed. Pp. 94-96. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
1999 Foreword. In Collecting Native America, 1870-1960. Shepard Krech III and Barbara A. Hail, eds. Pp. v-vi. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press.
2000 Introduction. In Clay MacCauley, The Seminole Indians of Florida. Pp. ix-lii. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
2001 How To Not Exhibit Ethnographic Art. American Anthropologist 103(3):808-809.

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Access note
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Conditions Governing Use note
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Preferred Citation note
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

Related Archival Materials note
Other materials relating to William C. Sturtevant at the National Anthropological Archives are included in the following collections:
Manuscript 4504
Manuscript 4595
Manuscript 4806
Manuscript 4821
Manuscript 4972
Manuscript 7045
Photo Lot 59
Photo Lot 79-51
Photo Lot 80-3
Photo Lot 81R
Photo Lot 86-68 (6)
Photo Lot 86-68 (7)
American Society for Ethnohistory records
Committee on Anthropological Research in Museum Records
Handbook of North American Indians records
Records of the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History
Gordon Davis Gibson Papers, Sound Recordings
SPC Se Powhatan Confederacy Mattapony BAE No # 01790700
DOE Oceania:Amer Poly:Hi:Hawaiian Helmet:Sturtevant 04913800
DOE Oceania:Amer Poly:Hi:Hawaiian Helmet:Sturtevant 04913900
DOE Oceania:Amer Poly:Hi:Hawaiian Helmet:Sturtevant 04914000
Negative MNH 1530
Negative MNH 1530 B
Sturtevant is listed as a correspondent in the following NAA collections:
Administrative file, 1949-1965, Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology
John Lawrence Angel Papers
James Henri Howard Papers
Donald Jayne Lehmer Papers
John Victor Murra Papers
Records of the Society for American Archaeology
Albert Clanton Spaulding Papers
Waldo Rudolph Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel Papers
Copies of sound recordings made by William C. Sturtevant can be found at The California Language Archive at UC Berkeley in two collections, The William Sturtevant collection of Creek/Seminole sound recordings, which includes 31 minutes of Northern Muskogean linguistic field recordings from 1951, and The William Sturtevant collection of Mikasuki sound recordings, which includes 33 minutes of Mikasuki linguistic field recordings from 1951. Two sound tape reels of Seminole music Sturtevant recorded in Florida in 1951 can be found at Wesleyan University's World Music Archives. Folk songs on these recordings include "Scalping Sickness," "Bear Sickness with blowing," "Bear sickness without blowing," "Lullaby," "Feather Dance," "Snake Dance," and "Crazy Dance." Performers include Josie Billie, Lee Cypress, Harvey Jumper, Boy Jim, Charlie (Johnny?) Cypress, Little Tiger Tail, Billy Ossiola, and Charlie Billy Boy.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
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Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland, Maryland , 20746
Phone: 301.238.1300
naa@si.edu