Photo Lot 155, J.N.B. Hewitt photographs of Iroquois Indians on the Six Nations Reservation, circa 1897-circa 1937
NAA.PhotoLot.155

Summary
Collection ID:
NAA.PhotoLot.155
Creators:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937
Dates:
circa 1897-circa 1937
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
307 photographs
2 document boxes
305 negatives
3 negative boxes
nitrate
Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
Photographs documenting Iroquois people made circa 1897-circa 1937 on and near the Six Nations Reserve by J.N.B. Hewitt, linguist with the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology.

Scope and Contents note
Scope and Contents note
Hewitt’s photos primarily depict Mohawk, Cayuga, Seneca, Onondaga, Tuscarora, Oneida, and Tutelo Indians. There are also a few images of Iroquois houses and other structures, Hewitt’s mask collection, and Onondaga Chief John Buck and family, Seneca Chief John Arthur Gibson and family, Cayuga Chief James Jamieson and family, and Cayuga-Seneca Chief Simeon Gibson. Most of the photographs were taken during several trips between 1897 and 1937, on and near the Six Nations Reserve in Ontario, including in New York (Niagara Falls, Nedrow, and Syracuse) and Ontario (Oshweken, Deseronto, and Brantsford).

Arrangement note
Arrangement note
For Photo Lot 155 Hewitt's original arrangement and numbering has been maintained. The order of the photographs does not follow the chronology that they were taken; for instance there are often several photographs of an individual that were clearly made in different years. The original negatives also represent a variety of film and camera types.
The arrangement and numbering for MS 4596, established at an unknown time, was maintained.

Biographical note
Biographical note
J.N.B. (John Napoleon Brinton) Hewitt (December 6, 1859-October 14, 1937) was a linguist and ethnographer who specialized in Iroquoian and other Native American languages. Born on the Tuscarora Indian Reservation near Lewiston, New York, his mother was of Tuscarora, French, Oneida, and Scottish descent. His father's heritage was English and Scottish, but he was raised in a Tuscarora family. Hewitt spoke English growing up, but when he left the reservation to attend schools in Wilson and Lockport, he learned to speak the Tuscarora language from other students. Hewitt grew up planning to become a physician, like his father. However, the course of Hewitt’s interests changed when, in 1880, he was hired by Erminnie A. Smith of the Smithsonian Institution’s Bureau of Ethnology (now the Bureau of American Ethnology) as an assistant ethnologist tasked with collecting myths among the Iroquois tribes of New York. He continued this work from 1880-1884, and then was briefly employed by the Jersey City Railways Co. (1884-1885) and Adams Express Co. (1885-1886). Upon Smith’s death in 1886, Hewitt returned to the BAE to continue her work, remaining employed there until his death.
Over the course of his career, Hewitt became the leading authority on the organization of the Iroquois League and the ceremonials, customs, and usages of the tribes composing it. He acquired an intimate knowledge of the languages of the League, including a speaking knowledge of Mohawk and Onondaga, and also became acquainted with several Algonquian dialects. On February 28, 1914, in recognition of his services in preserving for posterity a knowledge of the history and ethnology of the Indians of New York state, he was awarded the Cornplanter medal for Iroquois Research.
Additionally, he was a founder of the American Anthropological Association and an active member of the Anthropological Society of Washington and the American Museum of Natural History, serving as both treasurer (1912-1926) and president (1932-1934) of the latter. Hewitt also contributed over one hundred articles for the
Handbook of American Indians (Bulletin 30)
and published the two volume
Iroquoian Cosmology
(1903 and 1928).

Administration
Existence and Location of Originals note
There is probably one nitrate negative that belongs to this collection stored at the Library of Congress cold vault in box 6207.
Processing Information note
All prints and negatives, formerly disassociated from each other, were reunited in 2011. The photographs forming MS 4596 were relocated to this collection from Photo Lot 24 and the prints matching Hewitt's original negatives filed in "Negative Books" I-IV were removed from the Reference Print Files. Polyester copy negatives were made for the original nitrate negatives. The collection was processed by Gina Rappaport, 2011.
Most of the image identifications came from previous inventories. The inventory for "Negative Vol. I" states: "The captions in this list were compiled from captions found on the backs of original prints in the handwriting of J.N.B. Hewitt and of Mae W. Tucker, his secretary; from the list of captions in Miss Tucker's writing at the front of each book of negatives; and occassionally from captions published in the Smithsonian Institution Explorations and Field Work. The margins of the negatives were also checked for written information, but only one of two instances of this were found."
The collection was partially processed by Gina Rappaport in 2011 and completed and encoded by Eden Orelove in 2016.
Description note
Identifications for "Negative Books" II-IV come largely from typed lists in the old BAE photograph catalog. Identifications for photographs previously in MS4596 come primarily from captions written on the negatives.
Collection and image descriptions provided in this finding aid were compiled using the best available sources of information. Such sources include the creator's annotations or descriptions, collection accession files, primary and secondary source material (i.e. documents, publications, and websites), and subject matter experts. While every effort is made to provide accurate information, it is understood that errors may reveal themselves following review by other subject experts, and new information is welcome.
Author
Finding aid prepared by Gina Rappaport and Eden Orelove

Publication Note
Publication Note
Explorations and Fieldwork of the Smithsonian Institution, 1926
Explorations and Fieldwork of the Smithsonian Institution, 1929
Explorations and Fieldwork of the Smithsonian Institution, 1930
Explorations and Fieldwork of the Smithsonian Institution, 1932
Explorations and Fieldwork of the Smithsonian Institution, 1936

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation note
Photo Lot 155, J.N.B. Hewitt photographs of Iroquois Indians on the Six Nations Reservation, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Conditions Governing Access note
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Conditions Governing Use note
Contact the repository for terms of use.

Custodial History note
Custodial History note
Previous to processing in 2011, Hewitt's negatives and prints were stored variously over the years. Some of the prints were assigned manuscript number 4596 and were filed in Photo Lot 24. The prints matching the original negatives in "Negative Books" I-IV (now called Photo Lot 155) were filed under "Iroquois" in the "Reference Print Files" in the NAA reading room.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Abram, Charles Chief Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Buck, Emeline Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Buck, John Chief Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Buck, Joshua Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Buck, Susan Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
General Mrs Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
General, Myrtle Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Gibson, Simeon Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hill, George Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hill, Simon Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Jamieson, Clara Miss Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Jamieson, James Mrs Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Jamieson Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sandy, William Mrs Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sandy, William Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Cayuga Indians Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Dakota Indians Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Indians of North America--Great Plains Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Indians of North America--Southern States Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Iroquis Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Iroquois--Cayuga Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Iroquois--Mohawk Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Iroquois--Oneida Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Iroquois--Onondaga Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Iroquois--Seneca Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Iroquois--Six Nations Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Iroquois--Six Nations Reserve--wampum Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Iroquois--Tuscarora Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Mohawk Indians Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Onondaga Indians Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Seneca Indians Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sioux Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Six Nations Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Trade, gifts and other exchanges--wampum Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Tutelo Indians Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Wampum Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Wampum--Iroquois Subject Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland, Maryland , 20746
Phone: 301.238.1300
naa@si.edu