Records of the Field Offices for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAAHC.FB.M1909
Dates:
1865–1872
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
69,244 digital files
Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 78 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1909. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the North Carolina Assistant Commissioner, staff officers, and field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, containing materials that include letters and endorsements sent and received, orders and circulars, monthly reports, and other records relating to freedmen's complaints and claims.

Records Description
Records Description
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by the Freedmen's Bureau by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this microfilm publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.
The volumes include letters and endorsements sent and received, registers of letters received, unregistered letters received, general and special orders and circulars received, registers of claimants for bounties and pay arrearages, and registers of complaints of illegal apprenticeships. The unbound documents consist of letters and orders received, unregistered letters received and narrative reports received, special orders and circulars issued, and general and special orders and circulars received. Note: The document titled "Tax List for Persons County, 1867," part of the records of the Hillsboro agent on roll 27, is missing.
A few series were created in 1863–64, prior to formation of the Bureau, by Union military commanders and U. S. Treasury agents, and included in the Bureau records. Some of the volumes contain more than one type of record, reflecting a common recording practice of clerks and staff officers in that period. On roll 15, for example, the Register of Complaints also contains a register of contracts. Researchers should read carefully the records descriptions and arrangements in the table of contents to make full use of these records.

Historical Note
Historical Note
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1909.]
HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self–sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.
The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts.
The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non–Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.
In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.
An act of Congress, approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.
For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870 the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. The records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.
THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN NORTH CAROLINA
ORGANIZATION
Col. Eliphalet Whittlesey, the first Assistant Commissioner of North Carolina, established his headquarters at Raleigh in June 1865. Whittlesey divided the state into four districts and thereunder into subdistricts. The districts included Newberne, Raleigh, Wilmington, and Goldsboro. The officers in charge of districts were designated superintendents, and those in charge of subdistricts were given the title of assistant superintendents. On July 1, 1867, the basic unit of organization for North Carolina was changed to the subdistrict. Eleven subdistricts were established, each containing from two to four subdivisions. The officers in charge of the subdistricts were designated subassistant commissioners, and those who administered smaller segments of the subdistrict were titled assistant subassistant commissioners. Each of the subassistant commissioners reported directly to the Assistant Commissioner.
March 1, 1868, marked the last change in the organization of the North Carolina Bureau. The state was divided into the four subdistricts of Morganton, Wilmington, Raleigh, and Goldsboro, but there were provisions for smaller subdivisions in each subdistrict. This new subdivision of the state resembled the first organizational structure, although titles for the various officers remained the same as those of the second. By May 1869 all of the Bureau offices and functions except education, were phased out in North Carolina, and the Assistant Commissioner closed his office the first week of that month.
The following officers succeeded Col. Eliphalet Whittlesey as Assistant Commissioner of North Carolina: Bvt. Maj. Gen. Thomas H. Ruger, May–June 1866; Bvt. Maj. Gen. John C. Robinson, June–November 1866; Col. James V. Bomford, November 1866–April 1867 (acting assistant commissioner); Bvt. Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles, April 1867–October 1868; Bvt. Lt. Col. Jacob F. Chur, October 1868–January 1869; and Bvt. Lt. Col. Charles E. Compton, April–May 1869.
ACTIVITIES
The major activities of the Freedmen's Bureau in North Carolina generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau issued rations and provided medical relief to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, and worked with benevolent societies in the establishment of schools.
When Col. E. Whittlesey assumed office as Assistant Commissioner for North Carolina in June 1865, he found large numbers of both freedmen and white refugees in desperate need of relief. To prevent widespread starvation and destitution in the state, the Freedmen's Bureau issued more than 500,000 rations from July through September. A large percentage of rations were issued to the families of white Confederate soldiers who died during military service. Despite a population of more than 300,000 by September 1865, only 5,000 freedpeople had received aid from the Bureau, mostly women and children. By January 1866, with aid being refused to those persons able to work, the number of rations issued to white refugees and freedmen diminished. However, because of crop failures and other emergencies, the Bureau at various periods between 1867 and 1868 issued food and clothing to those in dire need.
1
To further aid and provide medical relief to the nearly 14,000 freedmen scattered in camps, settlements, and large towns, the Freedmen's Bureau in North Carolina provided physicians and medical supplies, and opened hospitals. The Bureau established hospitals at Raleigh, Newberne, Beaufort, Roanoke Island, Kinston, Wilmington, Salisbury, and Charlotte. To protect against the spread of smallpox throughout the state, special hospitals were opened at Beaufort, Newberne, Raleigh, Greensboro, and Wilmington. Thousands of freedmen were vaccinated, and the vaccine was distributed to plantation owners. Also, routine inspections were made at freedmen camps and settlements by assistant superintendents and medical officers, and Bureau subdistrict officers were instructed to work closely with civil authorities in matters concerning public health and safety.
2
The regulation of written labor agreements between planters and freedmen was a major concern of the Bureau in North Carolina. In a circular issued July 5, 1865 (Circular Number 2), Assistant Commissioner Whittlesey told his subordinates that freedmen should be free to bargain with their prospective employers, and both parties should sign written agreements in the presence of a Bureau official. Freedmen who failed to adhere to signed agreements were subject to forfeit all or part of their wages. Employers who dismissed employees without just cause and failed to pay them were required to either make payment or provisions for laborers and their families for the remainder of the contract. If necessary, requirements were to be enforced by military authorities. The average wage for employees was $10 per month for men and $6 per month for women. Although the less restrictive system of crop sharing was popular among freedmen, it was the subject of numerous complaints, and the Bureau advised against it because of such abuses as high costs for provisions charged by employers during the season.
3
Safeguarding rights and securing justice for freedmen was also a priority of the Bureau in North Carolina. Following the Civil War, several Southern states, including North Carolina, enacted a series of laws commonly known as "Black Codes," which restricted the rights and legal status of freedmen. Freedmen were often given harsh sentences for petty crimes, and in some instances were unable to get their cases heard in state courts. In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard on May 30, 1865 (Circular Number 5), Assistant Commissioners were authorized, in places where civil law had been interrupted and blacks' rights to justice were being denied, to adjudicate cases between blacks themselves and between blacks and whites.
4
On July 13, 1866, after receiving notice from the Governor of North Carolina that "there now exists under the laws of this State no discrimination in the administration of justice to the prejudice of free persons of color," then–Assistant Commissioner John C. Robinson issued General Orders Number 3. The orders directed Bureau officers and agents to refer all cases involving freedmen, with the exception of those concerning labor agreements witnessed or approved by Bureau officials, to the appropriate state or county court. Bureau officers were further ordered (General Orders Number 5, August 3, 1866) to attend trials held by state authorities involving labor contracts not approved by the Bureau, to insure fair treatment of freedmen. Cases determined to be unjust could be resumed under the jurisdiction of the Bureau. If civil authorities failed or neglected to arrest persons who committed crimes, regardless of color, Bureau officers were authorized to make arrests and hold such individuals for the appropriate court.
5
Discriminatory clauses in the laws regarding the apprenticing of black children by North Carolina courts seriously hindered the Freedmen's Bureau's efforts to obtain justice for freedmen. Under North Carolina law, as part of the black codes, thousands of black children were bound out to their former owners without their parents' consent. Also, unlike white females who were apprenticed until the age of 18, black females were bound until age 21. Those black children whose parents were not considered by county courts to be regularly employed in "some honest, industrious occupation" could be bound out. The Bureau saw the North Carolina laws as a subtle attempt to re–enslave freedmen. In November 1866, with pressure from the Bureau, the clauses in the laws were removed and many of the apprenticeship agreements were cancelled. However, the practice of illegally apprenticing black children remained a major problem in many counties in North Carolina. Not until the North Carolina Supreme Court in January 1867 ruled "Null and Void" any apprenticeship contracts, whether the child was black or white, were black parents able to get significant relief regarding the illegal apprenticeship of their children.
6
The Freedmen's Bureau's educational activities in North Carolina officially began with the appointment of F. A. Fiske as superintendent of schools on August 9, 1865 (Special Orders Number 21). The Bureau, for the most part, offered advice, protection, and financial assistance to local citizens interested in starting schools. Fiske frequently acted as an intermediary between freedmen and members of the benevolent societies that offered to provide teachers and aid for schools. He corresponded routinely with state and local authorities, members of benevolent societies, and with Bureau officers stationed in the subdistricts. In addition, he collected information about the schools and about the attitudes of the white populace toward the education of freedmen and reported his findings to Bureau headquarters at Washington. In November 1865, Fiske reported that there were some 61 schools and 97 teachers providing instruction for over 5,000 students. At the end of February 1866, there were 115 schools and 151 teachers providing education for more than 11,000 pupils. While the bulk of the aid for freedmen schools came largely from northern benevolent societies, freedmen themselves contributed significantly in the establishment and maintenance of their own schools.
7
On July 31, 1868, Fiske resigned and H. C. Vogell succeeded him. The office of the Assistant Commissioner was terminated in the first week of May 1869, but the superintendent of education remained, and it was not until August 31, 1870 that Vogell's appointment was withdrawn.
ENDNOTES
1 House Ex. Doc. 11, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1255, p. 25; Annual Reports of the Assistant Commissioners, North Carolina, October 9, 1867, pp. 3 – 4, October 20, 1868 [pp. 2 – 3], Records of the Office of the Commissioner, Record Group (RG) 105, NARA.
2 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, pp. 107 – 108.
3 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1256, p. 4; Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, p. 104; For a discussion of wage and share contracts relating to the Freedmen's Bureau's activities in North Carolina, see Roberta Sue Alexander, North Carolina Faces the Freedmen; Race Relations During Presidential Reconstruction, 1865–67 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1985), pp. 96 – 112.
4 House Ex. Doc. 11, 39th Cong., 1st Sess. Serial Vol. 1255, p. 45.
5 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, pp. 101 – 102.
6 Alexander, North Carolina Faces the Freedmen, pp.112 – 119; See also, Rebecca Scott, "The Battle Over the Child: Child Apprenticeship and the Freedmen's Bureau in North Carolina," Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives 10, No. 2 ( Summer 1978): 101 – 113.
7 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, pp. 104 – 105.

Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in North Carolina
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in North Carolina
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices for North Carolina. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment-related records.
NORTH CAROLINA HEADQUARTERS
June 1865—May 1866
Assistant Commissioner Col. Elipahalet Whittlesey
May—June 1866
Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Maj. Gen. Thomas H. Ruger
June—November 1866
Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Maj. Gen. John C. Robinson
November 1866—April 1867
Acting Assistant Commissioner Col. James V. Bomford
April 1867—October 1868
Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Maj. Gen. Nelson A Miles
October 1868—January 1869
Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Lt. Col. Jacob F. Chur
April—May 1869
Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Lt. Col. Charles E. Compton
ASHEVILLE
May-Nov. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Patrick E. Murphy
July 1867-Sept. 1868
Agent Oscar Eastmond
BEAUFORT
Dec. 1865-June 1867
Assistant Superintendent Richard Dillon
June 1867-Mar. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Richard Dillon
Mar.-June 1868
Subassistant Commissioner, Owen Jay Sweet
July-Sept. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner, E. C. Gaskill
Sept.-Nov. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Louis E. Granger
CHARLOTTE
May—Sept. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner A.W. Shaffer
Sept.—Oct. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner H.M. Lazalel
Oct. 1867—Jan. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner T.O. McAlpine
Jan.—Nov. 1868
Agent T.O. McAlpine
EDENTON
July 1867—May 1868
Subassistant Commissioner C.W. Dodge
June 1868
Subassistant Commissioner E.C. Gaskill
July—Aug. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner C.W. Dodge
Sept.—Nov. 1868
Agent C.W. Dodge
ELIZABETH CITY
Jan.—July 1867
Assistant Superintendent William H. Doherty
July 1867—Dec. 1868
Agent William H. Doherty
FAYETTEVILLE
Nov. 1865
Assistant Commissioner Nicholas Yeager
Dec. 1865—Mar. 1866
Assistant Superintendent H. C. Laurence
Aug.—Sept. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Justin Hadger
May—Dec. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner M. Gogswell
Jan.—Mar. 1868
Agent Manchester W. Weld
Mar.—Dec. 1868
Agent Richard Dillon
FRANKLIN
Sept.—Dec. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner George S. Hawley
Jan.-Aug. 1868
Agent George S. Hawley
FRANKLINTON
July 1866—July1867
Assistant Commissioner Thomas H. Hay
GOLDSBORO
July—Aug. 1865
Superintendent J. Murray Hoag
Dec. 1865—May 1866
Superintendent G. O. Glavis
May—Aug. 1866
Superintendent J. W. Stickney
Feb.—May 1867
Assistant Superintendent Hannibal D. Norton
May 1867—Feb. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner C. E. Compton
July—Sept. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. F. Allison
GRAHAM
Mar.—May 1868
Agent Manchester W. Weld
May—Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Frederick W. Liedtke
GREENSBORO
July 1865—Aug. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Asa Teal
Aug. 1866—May 1867
Agent A. Dilsworth
Jan.—Nov. 1868
Agent Hugo Hillebrandt
June—Oct. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner A. W. Bolenius
Oct. 1867—Jan. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Hugo Hillebrandt
HALIFAX
Apr. 1866—Apr. 1867
Assistant Superintendent John M. Foote
HENDERSON
July 1867—Mar. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas H. Hay
Mar.—July 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Frank A. Page
Aug.—Dec. 1868
Agent E. T. Lamberton
HILSSBORO
May 1866—Sept.1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Issac Porter
June—Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas H. Hay
Feb. 1868
Agent James Carle
Mar.—May 1868
Agent Charles B. Whittemore
May—June 1868
Agent Manchester W. Weld
JEFFERSON
July—Dec. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William N. Thompson
Jan.—July 1868
Agent William N. Thompson
KINSTON
May—Aug. 1866
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner H. Hillebrandt
Aug. 1866—Jan. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William F. Cox
Mar.—Sept. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner H. H. Foster
Dec. 1867—Jan. 1867
Agent J. D. Black
Mar.—Sept. 1868
Agent J. D. Black (also Goldsboro)
Sept.—Dec. 1868
Agent George S. Hawley (also Godlsboro)
LEXINGTON
Aug.—Dec. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. F. Henderson
Jan.—Mar. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Austin W. Fuller
Mar.—Dec. 1868
Agent W. F. Henderson
LINCOLNTON
July—Oct. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. O. McAlpine
Mar.—Dec. 1868
Agent William Birnie
LUMBERTON
Apr. 1867—Jan. 1868
Agent William Birnie
Feb.—Dec. 1868
Agent Alfred Thomas
MAGNOLIA
Jan.—Dec. 1866
Assistant Superintendent H. H. Foster
July—Dec. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner L. Echelberry
Mar.—Dec. 1868
Agent J. H. Curren
MORGANTON
May 1867—Jan. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Hannibal D. Norton
Jan.—Dec. 1868
Agent Hannibal D. Norton
NEWBERNE (Eastern District)
Aug.—Dec. 1865
Superintendent Horace James
Jan.—May 1866
Superintendent F.A. Seely
June 1866
Superintendent A. Brady
June—Aug. 1866
Superintendent William H. Wieget
Aug. 1866—July 1867
Superintendent Stephen Moore
July 1867—Mar. 1868
Assistant Commissioner Stephen Moore (Subdistrict of Newberne)
Mar.—Oct. 1868
Agent Stephen Moore (Subdistrict of Newberne)
Oct.—Dec. 1868
Bureau Officer Stephen Moore (Subdistrict of Newberne)
NEWBERNE (Subdistrict)
Oct. 1865—Apr. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Isaac A. Rosekrans
Apr. 1866
Assistant Superintendent A. W. McKillip
Jan.—Mar. 1867
Assistant Superintendent Andrew Coats
Jan.—Mar. 1867
Assistant Superintendent A. W. Bolenius
NEWBERNE (Claims Division)
July—Aug. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Andrew Coats
Sept.—Oct. 1866
Assistant Superintendent William H. Doherty
Nov. 1866—Mar. 1871
Assistant Superintendent Andrew Coats
Mar. 1871—Aug. 1872
Cashier C. A. Nelson
OXFORD
July 1866—June 1867
Assistant Superintendent William Jones
PLYMOUTH
May 1866—June 1867
Assistant Superintendent C. W. Dodge
July 1867—Sept. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner John M. Foote
Oct.—Dec. 1868
Bureau Officer John M. Foote
RALEIGH
July 1865—Jan. 1866
Superintendent Dexter E. Clapp
Jan.—Mar. 1866
Superintendent Aquila Wiley
Apr.—Dec. 1866
Superintendent A. G. Bready
Jan.—May 1867
Superintendent M. Cogswell
May—July 1866
Assistant Superintendent Asa Bird Gardner
Aug. 1866—May 1867
Assistant Superintendent T. D. McAlpine
June 1867—Aug. 1868
Agent H. C. Vogell
Aug.—Dec. 1868
Agent C. B. Whittemore
ROCKINGHAM
June—July 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner T. D. McAlpine
July 1867—Mar. 1868
Agent William MacFarland
Mar.—Dec. 1868
Agent William MacFarland (also Wadesboro)
ROCKY MOUNT
Dec. 1865—Jan. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Thomas Richards
Jan.—July 1866
Assistant Superintendent William F. Cox
July 1866—June 1867
Assistant Superintendent J.F. Allison
July 1867—Jan. 1868
Agent William A. Cutter
Feb.—Mar. 1868
Agent Gardiner Marriam
Mar.—June 1868
Agent A. W. Fuller
June—Aug. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Robert G. Heiner
SALISBURY (Western District)
Feb.—May 1866
Superintendent Clinton A. Cilley
May—July 1866
Superintendent Stephen Moore
Aug. 1866—Dec. 1867
Superintendent John R. Edie
Jan.—Oct 1868
Superintendent William A. Cutter
SMITHFIELD
May 1866—June 1867
Assistant Superintendent J. F. Curren
STATESVILLE
July 1867—Jan. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. W. Jones
Jan.—Nov. 1868
Agent W. W. Jones
Nov.—Dec. 1868
Bureau Officer W. W. Jones
TRENT RIVER SETTLEMENT (James City, Newberne Subdistrict)
July 1866—May 1867
Assistant Superintendent and Assistant Quartermaster A. W. McKillip
WASHINGTON
Jan.—June 1867
Assistant Superintendent Austin W. Fuller
July—Nov. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Austin W. Fuller
Feb.—Dec. 1868
Agent Isaac A. Rosekrans
WHITEVILLE
Jan.—May 1866
Assistant Superintendent E. H. McQuigg
June 1866—Feb. 1
Assistant Superintendent L. Echelberry
WILKESBORO
Sept.—Dec. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. F. Allison
Mar.—June 1868
Agent James Carle
WILMINGTON (Southern District)
Sept. 1865—Jan. 1866
Superintendent Charles J. Wickersham
Feb.—Mar. 1866
Superintendent William Beadle
Mar.—Apr. 1866
Superintendent Charles J. Wickersham
Apr. 1866—June 1867
Superintendent Allan Rutherford
June—Sept. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner Allan Rutherford
Sept. 1867—Mar. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Allan Rutherford (4th Subdistrict)
Mar. 1868—June 1869
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Allan Rutherford
June 1869—Mar. 1870
Agent Allan Rutherford

Using the Collection
Citation Note
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Access Note
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commerical use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.

Related Archival Materials note

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Slaves -- Emancipation Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
American South Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877 Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Freedmen's Bureau Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Museum of African American History and Culture
Washington, D.C. 20004
NMAAHC-ArchivalCollection@si.edu