Records of the Field Offices for the State of Virginia, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAAHC.FB.M1913
Dates:
1865–1872
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
197,148 digital files
Repository:
This collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 203 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1913. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Virginia field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872, including previously unfilmed records of the Virginia staff offices of the quartermaster and disbursing officer, and the subordinate field offices. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, including letters and endorsements sent and received, orders and circulars, monthly reports, and other records relating to freedmen's complaints and claims.

Historical Note
Historical Note
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1913.]
HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self–sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.
The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts.
The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non–Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.
In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.
An act of Congress approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.
For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870, the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. However, the records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.
THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN VIRGINIA
ORGANIZATION
In Virginia, the Bureau's operations began in June 1865 when Assistant Commissioner Orlando Brown established his headquarters in Richmond. Brown served until May 1866, when he was succeeded by Maj. Gen. Alfred H. Terry, who remained in office until August 1866. Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield served from August 1866 to March 1867, when Orlando Brown again assumed office and served as both Assistant Commissioner and superintendent of education until May 1869.
From June 1866 to March 1867, Assistant Commissioners Terry and Schofield also served as military commanders of the Department of Virginia and its successor, the Department of the Potomac. Although the two generals created and received records in both capacities, they maintained separate sets of records for this period. Records created by Terry and Schofield while serving in their military capacities are found among the Records of United States Army Commands, 1821–1920, RG 393.
Beginning in September 1865, the Assistant Commissioner for the District of Columbia was responsible for Bureau operations in the Virginia counties of Alexandria, Fairfax, and Loudoun, and the Freedmen's Village near Arlington, VA. Bureau officers were assigned to supervise the activities of these districts. In August 1866, supervision of Loudoun County was transferred to the Assistant Commissioner for Virginia, and Alexandria and Fairfax Counties were similarly transferred in March 1867. Because officers in the above counties reported to the Assistant Commissioner of the District of Columbia, some records for Virginia are among his files.
From July 4, 1865 to April 14, 1867, the Virginia Bureau was divided into 10 districts, with an agent or superintendent in charge of each. Districts were further divided into subdistricts, each headed by an assistant superintendent. On April 15, 1867, the state was reorganized into 10 subdistricts, with a subassistant commissioner in charge of each. The subdistricts were divided further into divisions headed by assistant subassistant commissioners. Subdistrict headquarters were established at Alexandria, Fort Monroe, Fredericksburg, Gordonsville, Lynchburg, Norfolk, Petersburg, Richmond, Winchester, and Wytheville. On January 1, 1869, the 10 subdistricts were reorganized into 8 educational subdistricts, with an assistant superintendent of schools in charge of each. The heads of the various subdivisions supervised all Bureau activities, including education, in their respective areas and reported on educational matters to both the superintendent of education and the Assistant Commissioner.
ACTIVITIES
The major activities of the Freedmen's Bureau in Virginia generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau issued rations and provided medical relief to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, and worked with benevolent societies in the establishment of schools.
The Freedmen's Bureau's efforts to provide relief to both blacks and whites in Virginia began almost as soon as Orlando Brown assumed office as Assistant Commissioner for the state in June 1865. From late summer to early fall 1865, the Bureau issued more than 350,000 rations at a cost of nearly $33,000. By mid October 1865, however, the number of rations issued had declined from a previous 275,000 to less than 236,000. During the same period, the number of people receiving rations decreased from 16,298 to 11,622. In September 1866, with Commissioner Howard's limitation of government assistance to those persons in orphanages and hospitals, and the plan to relinquish relief efforts for the destitute to state and local government officials, the Bureau in Virginia issued rations to fewer than 5,000 individuals statewide. Because the Virginia Bureau in 1866 and 1867 was committed to reducing expenditures and providing limited relief for those in dire need, by late September 1868 a large number of freedmen in the state still remained impoverished.1
The Virginia Bureau also opened several hospitals for the sick and infirm. At various times, hospitals were established at Eastville, Drummondtown, Norfolk, Hampton, Yorktown, Petersburg, Farmville, Lynchburg, Danville, Richmond, and City Point. Under the direction of surgeon J. J. De Lamaster, 13 contract and 2 noncontract physicians provided treatment for more than 650 patients during 1865 and 1866. Two dispensaries administered more than 18,000 prescriptions for medicine. At Howard Grove Hospital near Richmond, Virginia, the Bureau opened a ward for the insane and a home for the aged and infirm. In the northern part of the state, homes were located for 139 inmates housed at an orphan asylum. By late October 1866, over 30,000 freedmen received medical aid from the Bureau in Virginia. By October 1867, that number increased to 50,000.2
The Bureau worked to make freedmen self–sufficient and to incorporate them into the new free–labor system in Virginia. Thousands of freedmen who crossed Union lines during the Civil War continued to seek support from the Freedmen's Bureau at war's end. With great demand for labor in some areas (especially in large cities) and not in others, and the Federal Government's determination to reduce dependency on government aid, the Virginia Bureau provided transportation for persons who were unable to find work in areas where they resided to locations where work was readily available. Those able–bodied freedmen who refused or did not apply for transportation would no longer receive rations. Under labor agreements approved by the Virginia Bureau, freedmen received rations (but no clothing) and wages that averaged about $9 per month. In some districts freedmen worked for a share of the crop. Often, however, with limited employment (especially during the winter months), low wages, inadequate shares of crops, and the failure of local officials to provide for the destitute, freedmen were constantly dependent upon the Bureau for subsistence.3
Safeguarding rights and securing justice for freedmen were major concerns of the Virginia Bureau. Following the Civil War, several Southern states, including Virginia, enacted a series of laws commonly known as "Black Codes" that restricted the rights and legal status of freedmen. Freedmen were often given harsh sentences for petty crimes and in some instances were unable to get their cases heard or to testify in state courts. In September 1865, Assistant Commissioner Orlando Brown established Freedmen's Bureau courts to adjudicate cases involving freedmen where the penalties did not exceed a $100 fine or three months in prison. The three–member court was composed, for the most part, of a Bureau agent, a planters' representative, and an individual selected by freedmen. In February 1866, the Virginia legislature amended laws that adversely affected the rights of freedmen, and thus by early May 1866, Bureau courts were discontinued, and both civil and criminal cases were turned over to state authorities. However, because of the failure of many local court officials to administer equal justice (especially in areas outside of large cities and towns), the Bureau in Virginia found it necessary to re–establish Bureau courts in certain areas of the state. In late May 1867, Maj. Gen. Schofield, who served as both Commander of the 1st Military District and Assistant Commissioner for Virginia, issued orders appointing military commissioners to oversee the administration of justice in Bureau subdistricts throughout Virginia, giving them exclusive jurisdiction and power to decide whether a case would be tried by a civil court or a military commission. Despite the establishment of military commissioners however, protecting the rights and securing justice for freedpeople still remained an enormous problem for the Bureau as late as the fall of 1868.4
The Freedmen's Bureau's educational activities in Virginia began with Assistant Commissioner Brown's appointment of Prof. W. H. Woodbury as Virginia's superintendent of schools for freedmen on June 20, 1865. By November, he had been replaced by Ralza Morse Manly, the assistant superintendent of schools (later education), who served until August 15, 1870, when all Bureau educational activities ceased.
Within six months of assuming office, Manly had more than 136 teachers instructing some 8,000 pupils. The number of teachers soon increased to more than 200, with nearly 18,000 students under instruction. During the years 1866 and 1867, freedmen schools continued to improve and expand. By the fall of 1868, there were nearly 270 schools in operation, with more than 350 teachers providing instruction for some 20,000 pupils.5 Schools assisted or maintained by the Bureau in Virginia included day schools for children, night schools for adults, and Sabbath schools. Students received instruction in such subjects as reading, writing, arithmetic, and geography. Many teachers were recruited from the North by freedmen's aid societies that included the American Missionary Association, the New York National Freedmen's Relief Association, the New England Freedmen's Aid Society, the American Baptist Home Mission Society, the Friends Freedmen's Relief Association, and the American Freedmen's Union Commission. Teachers were also recruited from among the local white and black populations.
The Bureau's educational support for freedmen schools generally involved assistance in the establishment and maintenance of schools and the examination and appointment of teachers. Bureau funds were used to pay for construction and repair of school buildings, for rental of properties used for educational purposes, and for providing teachers with transportation. Teachers' salaries were usually paid by freedmen's aid societies; however, in some situations, salaries were partially subsidized by contributions from freedmen. Whenever possible, the Bureau solicited subscriptions from freedmen for the establishment of schools, and in some cases tuition was charged.
ENDNOTES
1 Mary J. Farmer, "Because They Are Women: Gender and the Virginia Freedmen's Bureau's War on Dependency," in The Freedmen's Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations, eds. Paul A. Cimbala and Randall M. Miller, (New York: Fordham University Press, 1999), 165 – 169; Annual Reports of the Assistant Commissioners, Virginia, October 8, 1867 [pp. 4 – 7], and October 19, 1868 [pp. 12 – 14], Records of the Office of the Commissioner, Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, Record Group (RG) 105, National Archives Building (NAB), Washington, DC.
2 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, 163 – 164; For further details on the medical activities of the Freedmen's Bureau in Virginia, see Annual Reports of J. J. De Lamater, Surgeon and Chief, Virginia, October 25, 1866 [pp. 1 – 34], and October 1, 1867 [pp. 1 – 23], Annual Reports, Virginia, RG 105, NAB.
3 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, Serial Vol. 1276, 161 – 162; see also Annual Reports, Virginia, October 8, 1867, [pp. 4 – 8], and October 19, 1868, [pp. 12 – 14].
4 George R. Bentley, A History of the Freedmen's Bureau (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1944), 152 – 153; Senate Ex. Doc. 6, Serial Vol. 1276, 165 – 167; Annual Reports, Virginia, October 8, 1867, [p. 3], and October 19, 1868, [pp. 2 – 8].
5 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, Serial Vol. 1276, 164 – 165; Annual Reports, Virginia, October 8, 1867, [pp. 9 – 14], and October 19, 1868, [pp. 16 – 18].

Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Virginia
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Virginia
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices for Virginia. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and in other appointment–related records.
ALEXANDRIA
Oct. 1863–June 1865
Superintendent of Contrabands A. Gladwin
July–Nov. 1865
Superintendent James Ferree (5th District)
Nov. 1865–Jan. 1866
Superintendent Henry Alvord
Jan. 1866–Mar. 1867
Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner S. R. Lee
Mar. 1867–Dec. 1868
Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner S. R. Lee (10th Subdistrict)
Jan.–Apr. 1869
Superintendent S. R. Lee (6th Educational Subdistrict of VA)
AMELIA COURTHOUSE
Oct. 1865–Aug. 1866
Assistant Superintendent W. F. White
Aug. 1866–Jan. 1867
Assistant Superintendent James Drysdale
Jan. 1867–Dec. 1868
Acting Subassistant Commissioner J. B. Clinton
APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE
1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Louis Neswick
ASHLAND
1865–66
Ed Murphy
1867–68
Ira Ayers
BOWLING GREEN (Caroline County)
Jan. 1866–Nov. 1867
Assistant Superintendent John Dwyer
Nov.–Dec. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. B. Pease
Jan.–Feb. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Hector Sears (at Fredericksburg)
Feb.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner F. S. Tukey
BOYDTON (Mecklenburg County)
Dec. 1866–Apr. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. George T. Cook (at Clarksville)
Apr.–Nov. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Alexander D. Bailie (at Clarksville)
Nov.–Dec. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Alexander D. Bailie
Jan.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George W. Graham (3rd Division, 11th Subdistrict)
BUCKINGHAM COURTHOUSE (Buckingham County)
July–Aug. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Lt. James P. Wogan
Sept.–Nov. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Paul Kolbe
Dec. 1865–Apr. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. J. F. Dengler
May–Aug. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Capt. W. James Kay
Jan.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Charles E. Fincke (at Maysville)
BURKESVILLE (Nottoway County)
July 1866–Oct. 1867
Assistant Superintendent Capt. D. Jerome Connolly
Oct. 1867–Oct. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. R. G. Rutherford
CHARLOTTE COURTHOUSE (Charlotte County)
Feb.–Apr. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Louis Ahrens
May–June 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Edwin Lyon
June–Sept. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. F. A. Page
CHARLOTTESVILLE (Albemarle County)
Jan.–Mar. 1866
Assistant Superintendent James Joyes
June 1866–June 1867
Assistant Superintendent Capt. William L. Tidball
June 1867–Feb. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. A. F. Higgs
CHESTERFIELD COURTHOUSE (Chesterfield County)
July 1865
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Henry Eisenhill
Aug. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Lt. John H. Kendall
Aug.–Oct. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Lt. William Taylor
Oct.–Nov. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Capt. William Kedlich
Dec. 1865–Jan. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Dennis M. Carroll
Jan. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Col. James M. Powell
Jan.–Mar. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. W. James Kay
CHRISTIANBURG (Montgomery County)
May 1866–Dec. 1868
Assistant Superintendent Lt. C. S. Schaeffer (8th District of VA)
CITY POINT (Prince George County)
July 1865
Assistant Superintendent Lt. John E. Herriot
Aug. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Capt. William Hedges
Sept. 1865–Apr. 1866
Assistant Superintendent R. P. Clayton
May–July 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Charles H. Bird
Aug. 1866–Jan. 1867
Assistant Superintendent Lt. J. Arnold Yeckley
CULPEPER COURTHOUSE (Culpeper County)
Oct.–Nov. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Capt. Earl Pierce
Dec. 1865–July 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. W. S. Chase
Aug. 1866–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. W. MacNulty
CULPEPER
Jan.–Mar. 1869
Assistant Superintendent William R. Morse (4th Education Subdistrict)
CUMBERLAND COURTHOUSE (Cumberland County)
July–Aug. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Curtis McCornish
May–Oct. 1865
Provost Marshall Capt. Oscar Fleichman
Oct.–Nov. 1865
Provost Marshall Lt. E. Steinmann Capt. D.
Dec. 1865–Feb. 1866
Provost Marshall Jerome Connolly
DANVILLE (Pittsylvania County)
Aug. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Capt. Moses Smith
Aug.–Oct. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Capt. P. J. Hawk
Dec. 1865–Nov. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Capt. J. F. Wilcox
Nov. 1866–July 1867
Assistant Superintendent Col. G. B. Carse
July 1867–June 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. Andrew Mahoney
June–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Leahey (at Pittsylvania Courthouse)
DRUMMONDTOWN
Dec. 1865–Feb. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Charles W. Hite
Mar.–Sept. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Maj. George H. French
Oct. 1866–Feb. 1867
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Ed. Murphy
Feb.–Nov. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Maj. George P. Sherwood
Nov. 1867–May 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Maj. George P. Sherwood (at Eastville)
May–Aug. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner M. S. Reed (at Eastville)
Aug.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner D. B. White (at Eastville)
FAIRFAX COURTHOUSE (Fairfax County)
Aug.–Sept. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Capt. George A. Armes
Sept. 1865–Feb. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Sidney B. Smith (at Vienna)
Mar. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Capt. J. O. Ross (at Vienna)
Nov. 1866–Mar. 1867
Assistant Superintendent O. E. Hine
Apr.–Aug. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. William Shields (at Falls Church)
Aug. 1867–Apr. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. W. S. Chase (at Falls Church)
Apr.–Oct. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. W. S. Chase (at Manassas)
Oct.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner John Raeburn
FARMVILLE
Sept.–Nov. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Lt. W. H. Lea
Nov. 1865–Jan. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Capt. R. C. Horner
Feb.–Apr. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Capt. D. Jerome Connolly
May 1866–Apr. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Maj. John W. Jordan
Apr.–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Thomas P. Jackson
Apr.–Aug. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas Leahey (at Farmville 1st Division, 11th Subdistrict)
Aug.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas Leahey (at Marysville 1st Division, 11th Subdistrict)
FREDERICKSBURG
Aug.–Nov. 1865
Superintendent Capt. D. W. Bohonon (10th District)
Dec. 1865–July 1866
Superintendent Maj. James Johnson (10th District)
July 1866–Dec. 1868
Superintendent Maj. James Johnson (6th District)
July 1866–Apr. 1867
Assistant Superintendent Hector Sears (for Stafford and King George Counties)
Apr. 1867–Dec. 1868
Assistant Superintendent Hector Sears (for Stafford, King George, and Spotsylvania Counties)
GOOCHLAND
Dec. 1865–Jan. 1868
Assistant Superintendent J. T. Wilson
Jan.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Superintendent E. C. Morse
GORDONSVILLE
Aug. 1865–June 1866
Superintendent Capt. T. Frank Crandon (4th District)
June 1866–Dec. 1868
Superintendent Maj. William R. Morse (4th District)
HALIFAX COURTHOUSE
Nov. 1867–Feb. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. David P. Scott (4th Subdivision, 11th District)
Feb.–May 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Nutt (4th Subdivision, 11th District)
May–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. H. H. Stowell (4th Subdivision, 11th District)
HEATHSVILLE
May 1866–Apr. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. W. Busby (5th Division, 6th Subdistrict)
Apr.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Haskell (5th Division, 6th Subdistrict)
JERUSALEM (Southampton County)
May 1866–Jan. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Lt. A. G. Deacon (4th Division, 1st Subdistrict)
Jan.–Sept. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Mortimer Moulden (4th Division, 1st Subdistrict)
Sept.–Oct. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner C. S. Schaeffer (4th Division, 1st Subdistrict)
Oct.–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Mortimer Moulden (4th Division, 1st Subdistrict)
KING WILLIAM COURTHOUSE
Feb.–June 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. John C. Chance (3rd Division, 3rd Subdistrict)
June 1866–July 1867
Assistant Superintendent Col. Frank Butts (3rd Division, 3rd Subdistrict)
July 1867–Dec. 1868
Assistant Superintendent C. P. Goodyear (3rd Division, 3rd Subdistrict)
LEESBURG (Loudoun County)
Mar. 1866–May 1868
Lt. Sydney B. Smith (3rd Division, 10th Subdistrict)
May–July 1868
Lt. Sydney B. Smith (at Warrenton)
July–Oct. 1868
Lt. Sydney B. Smith (at Middleburg)
LEXINGTON
Sept. 1865–Feb. 1866
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner C. Jerome Tubbs
Feb.–Nov. 1866
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner G. Carse
Dec. 1866–Jan. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. W. Sharp
Jan.–Sept. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Douglas Frazer
Sept.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Jno. W. Jordan
LIBERTY
Oct. 1865–Apr. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner B. T. Shaum
Apr.– Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. F. Wilcox
LOUISA COURTHOUSE
July 1865–Aug. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Capt. R. McMurray
Nov. 1865–July 1866
Assistant Superintendent Capt. James Ashworth
July–Nov. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Jacob Roth
Jan. 1867–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Maj. M. S. Hopkins (at Gordonsville)
LUNENBURG COURTHOUSE
Sept. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Alexander Blackman
Oct. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Capt. Richard M. Homer
Nov. 1865–Jan. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. H. Treher
Jan.–July 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. J. Arnold Yeckley
Apr.–July 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Stowell
July–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Austin
LYNCHBURG
Nov. 1865–Apr. 1867
Superintendent R. S. Lacey (7th District of VA)
Apr. 1867–Jan. 1868
Agent R. S. Lacey
Jan–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner R. S. Lacey (7th Subdistrict of VA)
Jan.–Mar. 1869
Assistant Superintendent of Schools R. S. Lacey
Dec. 1865–Jan. 1867
Assistant Superintendent Lt. J. P. Wodell (4th Subdistrict, 7th District)
Jan. 1867–Jan. 1868
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Louis W. Stevenson (1st Division, 7th District)
Jan.–Sept. 1868
Assistant Superintendent J. F. Wilson (1st Division)
May–Aug. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. W. F. DeKnight (Subdistrict of Amherst County)
June–Sept. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. L. A. Nesmith (1st and 6th Divisions, 7th District)
MADISON COURTHOUSE
Feb.–Nov. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Capt. Samuel W. Carpenter
Feb.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Crea
MANCHESTER
Oct. 1865–Mar. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. L. Hoysradt
Apr.–Oct. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. T. W. Lord
July–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Samuel F. Maddox
MARION
Apr.–Aug. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. B. E. Hess
MATTHEWS COURTHOUSE
Apr. 1866–Mar. 1867
Assistant Superintendent E. A. Chandler
Apr.–July 1867
Assistant Superintendent F. K. Smith
July–Aug. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. R. Williams
Aug. 1867–Jan. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. A. Chandler
Jan.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas Rice
FORT MONROE
Sept. 1865–July 1866
Superintendent C. B. Wilder (9th District)
July–Sept. 1866
Superintendent C. B. Wilder (5th District)
Sept. 1866–Apr. 1867
Superintendent S. L. Armstrong (5th District)
Apr. 1867–Jan. 1868
Agent S. L. Armstrong (5th District)
Jan.–Sept. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner S. L. Armstrong (5th District)
Sept.–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner S. L. Armstrong (at Hampton)
Jan.–Apr. 1869
Superintendent S. L. Armstrong (1st Education Subdistrict, Hampton)
NEW KENT COURTHOUSE
Mar.–Apr. 1866
Superintendent A. M. Brooks (at Barhamsville)
Apr. 1866–Dec. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner A. M. Brooks
Dec. 1867–June 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William H. Sloan
May–Aug. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. G. Townsend
NORFOLK
Mar.–June 1865
Assistant Superintendent for Negro Affairs, Fort Monroe C. H. Beirne
June–Sept. 1865
Superintendent A. S. Flagg (1st District, Fort Monroe)
Sept. 1865–June 1866
Superintendent A. S. Flagg (1st District, Norfolk)
June 1866–Mar. 1867
Superintendent William P. Austin
Mar. 1867–Jan. 1869
Subassistant Commissioner J. H. Remington
June–Aug. 1865
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. John H. Keatley
Aug. 1865–May 1866
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Charles E. Johnston
Feb.–Nov. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Edward Murphy
ORANGE COURTHOUSE
July–Sept. 1865
Assistant Superintendent M. C. Harris
Sept.–Oct. 1865
Assistant Superintendent H. C. Buckman
Oct. 1865–Aug. 1866
Assistant Superintendent John W. Barnes
Sept.–Oct. 1866
Assistant Superintendent W. A. MacNulty
PALMYRA
Aug–Nov. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Lt. C. E. Minor (at Columbia)
Dec. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Capt. N. R. Bunker (at Columbia)
Jan–Oct. 1866
Assistant Superintendent E. G. Budd
PETERSBURG
July–Aug. 1865
Superintendent Stuart Barnes (District of the Nottoway)
Aug. 1865–Sept. 1867
Superintendent Stuart Barnes (2nd District)
Sept. 1866–Sept. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner J. R. Stone
Sept.–Oct. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner James A. Bates
Oct. 1867–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner J. R. Stone
July 1865–Nov. 1865
Assistant Superintendent Capt. E. H. Tobey
Dec. 1866–Jan. 1867
Assistant Superintendent Lt. J. A. Yeckley
Nov.–Dec. 1867
Assistant Superintendent Capt. J. L. Johnston
Dec. 1867–July 1868
Assistant Superintendent Lt. H. K. W. Ayres
PRINCESS ANNE
Sept. 1865–May 1866
Assistant Superintendent Thomas P. Jackson (at Norfolk)
May 1866–July 1867
Assistant Superintendent Morton Havens
July 1867–Jan. 1868
Assistant Superintendent Morton Havens
Jan.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Superintendent James Croft
RICHMOND
Apr.–June 1865
Quartermaster H. S. Merrell
June–Nov. 1865
Superintendent H. S. Merrell (District of Henrico)
Nov. 1865–June 1866
Superintendent H. S. Merrell (3rd District)
June–Nov. 1866
Superintendent John A. McDonnell (3rd District)
Apr.–May 1867
Superintendent John A. Bates (3rd District)
Apr.–May 1867
Subassistant Commissioner John A. Bates
May 1867–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Paul R. Hambrick
Jan.–Apr. 1869
Assistant Superintendent of Schools Paul R. Hambrick
Dec. 1865–Feb. 1866
Assistant Superintendent E. B. Townsend (Subdistrict of Richmond)
Mar.–Apr. 1866
Assistant Superintendent T. W. Lord
Apr. 1866–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Benjamin C. Cook
ROCKY MOUNT
Jan.–June 1866
Assistant Superintendent James Warden
Aug. 1866–Apr. 1867
Assistant Superintendent William F. DeKnight (Subdistrict No. 3, 7th District)
Apr.–July 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William F. DeKnight
July–Oct. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William F. DeKnight (Subdistrict No. 3, 7th District)
Oct.–Dec. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Newton Whitten (4th Division, 7th Subdistrict)
Dec. 1867–June 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Augustus R. Egbert
SMITHFIELD
May 1865–Mar. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. L. W. L. McDaniels
Mar.–May 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. A. G. Deacon
STAUNTON
Mar.–May 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. George W. Cook (at Harrisburg)
May–Dec. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. George W. Cook (Subdistrict No. 10, 7th District, at Staunton)
Dec. 1866–Apr. 1867
Assistant Superintendent Frederick S. Tukey (Subdistrict of Augusta and Highland)
Apr. 1867–Mar. 1868
Assistant Superintendent Thomas P. Jackson (4th Division, 9th Subdistrict)
Mar.–Sept. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner John W. Jordan
Sept.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Roswell Waldo
SUFFOLK
Dec. 1866–Nov. 1867
Agent John W. Barnes (3rd Division, 1st Subdistrict)
Nov. 1867–July 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. George W. Fleming
July–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George W. Black
TAPPAHANNOCK
July–Oct. 1865
Provost Marshall Edgar B. Le Gro (at Warsaw)
Nov.–Dec. 1865
Provost Marshall Edgar B. Le Gro
Feb. 1866–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. Watson R. Wentworth (3rd Division, 6th Subdistrict from April 1867)
WARRENTON
July 1866–Aug. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. W. S. Chase
Aug. 1867–Jan. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Capt. E. B. Gates (4th Division, 10th Subdistrict)
Jan.–Apr. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Morton Havens (4th Division, 10th Subdistrict)
May–July 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. Sydney B. Smith (See Leesburg, VA)
WARSAW
Jan.–Dec. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Henry W. Ayres (4th Division, 6th Subdistrict from April 1867)
Jan. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William B. Pease
Feb.–Mar. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner C. G. McClelland
Apr.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. W. Busby
WAVERLY
Dec. 1866–Mar. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. F. Wilcox (2nd Division, 2nd Subdistict from April 1867)
Apr.–July 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner P. M. McLaughlin
WILSON'S LANDING
Feb.–June 1866
Assistant Superintendent J. H. Remington
July–Sept. 1866
Assistant Superintendent Lt. Edward Murphy
WINCHESTER
Aug.–Sept. 1865
Superintendent Capt. H. Stover How (6th District, at Staunton)
Oct. 1865–May 1866
Superintendent Capt. H. Stover How (6th District)
May–Sept. 1866
Superintendent J. H. Remington (6th District)
Sept.–Nov. 1866
Superintendent J. H. Remington (9th District)
Dec. 1866–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner John A. McDonnel (9th District)
Dec. 1865–Apr. 1866
Assistant Superintendent John P. How
Apr. 1866–Oct. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Capt. Gilbert R. Chandler (1st Division, 9th District)
WOODSTOCK
Mar. 1866–July 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. H. Hall (3rd Division, 9th District)
July–Aug. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. Lyreel
Aug.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Watkins James
WYTHEVILLE
Oct. 1865–June 1866
Superintendent B. C. Carter (8th District)
June–Dec. 1866
Superintendent George P. Sherwood (8th District)
Dec. 1866–Feb. 1867
Superintendent J. H. Remington (8th District)
Mar.–Aug. 1867
Superintendent William P. Austin (8th District)
Mar.–Aug. 1867
Superintendent H. G. Thomas (8th District)
Jan.–Mar. 1869
Assistant Superintendent of Schools H. G. Thomas (at Salem)
YORKTOWN
Jan. 1866–May 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner F. A. Massey (3rd Division, 5th District)
Aug.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Henry K. Ayers (3rd Division, 5th District)

Using the Collection
Access Note
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Citation Note
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.

Related Archival Materials note

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
American South Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877 Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Freedmen's Bureau Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Slaves -- Emancipation Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Museum of African American History and Culture
Washington, D.C. 20004
NMAAHC-ArchivalCollection@si.edu
http://nmaahc.si.edu/