Guide to John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAH.AC.0523
Creators:
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903
White, John H., 1933-
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.
Dates:
1880s-1990
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
31.33 cubic feet
94 boxes
Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
The archivist has arranged the collection into five separate series: Series 1: CAR BUILDERS, arranged alphabetically by company or individual. Series 2: EQUIPMENT - ROLLING STOCK, arranged in two sections: alphabetically by White's heading: Articles in Progress and alphabetical by type of railroad car under White's heading: Research Files for Book in Progress. Series 3: LOCOMOTIVES, arranged alphabetically by Locomotive builders in two sections, first by individual company and second by individuals. Series 4: RAILROAD COMPANIES AND LINES, arranged alphabetically by railroad companies and railroad lines. Series 5: PUBLICATIONS, White's files for his book The American Railroad Freight Car, which are arranged into two sections, Illustrations and Text. Both sections are arranged numerically by chapters or sections of the book.

Arrangement
Arrangement
The collection is divided into five series. Most material arranged alphabetically and chronologically.
Series 1: Car Builders
Series 2: Equipment--Rolling Stock
Subseries 2.1: Articles in progress
Subseries 2.2: Research Files for Books in Progress
Series 3: Locomotives
Series 4: Railroad Companies and Lines
Series 5: Publications

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
John H. White, Jr., (1933- ), historian and museum curator, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio. He graduated with a B.A. in history from Miami University, Ohio, in 1958. Shortly after receiving his degree, White joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution as Assistant Curator of the Division of Transportation, Department of Science and Technology, National Museum of History and Technology (NMHT). White became Associate Curator of the Division, 1961-1966, Curator, 1967-1985, and Senior Historian, 1986-1989. White specialized in land transportation, particularly the history of railroads. He retired in 1990. His papers, the John H. White, Jr., Papers, circa 1959-1989 are at the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
This collection of railroad materials was begun many years ago by employees of the Smithsonian Institution, and maintained later by curators and museum specialists working in the Division of Transportation, NMHT, later named the National Museum of American History (NMAH).
Some of the clippings date back to the time of J. Elfreth Watkins in the 1880-1890s. In 1885 Watkins was appointed Curator of the Section of Steam Transportation, which was successively known as Transportation and Engineering, and Technological Collections. Other portions of White's collection were clearly from Carl Mitman, author of several hundred entries on inventors and engineers in the Dictionary of American Biography and a Smithsonian employee who served as Curator of Mechanical Technology in 1919. In 1921 Mitman took the title of Curator of the Divisions of Mineral and Mechanical Technology, serving in this capacity until 1931. In 1931 the Division of Engineering was established. Mitman served as Curator of the Division and in charge of Mineral Technology, 1931-1938, Head Curator of the Department of Arts and Industries, 1932-1938, and Head Curator of the Department of Engineering and Industries, 1938-1948.
Some portions of this collection were acquired under the time of Frank A. Taylor (Mitman's protégé) who was Assistant Curator, 1928-1931, Assistant Curator for Mechanical Technology, 1932, Curator of the Division and in charge of Mechanical Technology, 1932-1948, Head Curator of the Division of Engineering and Industry, 1948-1957. In 1955 Taylor was appointed Assistant Director, United States National Museum (USNM), with special responsibility for planning the new NMHT, and in 1958 was appointed the first Director of the new museum. In 1962 Taylor became Director of the USNM with responsibility for both the National Museum of Natural History and NMHT.
Smith Hempstone Oliver of the Division of Transportation also kept up the files to a degree, though his main interest was in automobiles.
When White started employment at the Museum in June, 1958, there were, perhaps, two file cabinets on railroads. As Mr. White mentions in a letter to the archivist in March of 2002, "It was and is a great mix of odds and ends -- photos, news clippings, small prints, manufacturing catalogs, post cards, etc. Some junk and some treasure."
White found the material very useful for research and greatly expanded the collection. It more than doubled in size during his years in the Division, 1958-1990. The collection was White's working file and was set up to meet his needs. According to White, the collections greatest lack was cross referencing -- which was mostly in his head. He could usually find things but the organization might be confusing to other users. It was not intended for public use.
White is the author of many books on railroads, including:
American Locomotives: An Engineering History, 1830-1880
. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968; 1997.
Early American Locomotives, with 147 engraving
. New York: Dover Publications, 1972.
American Single Locomotives and the "Pioneer"
. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973.
The Pioneer, Chicago's First Locomotive
. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 1976.
The American Railroad Passenger Car
. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.
The John Bull, 150 Years a Locomotive. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981.
A Short History of American Locomotive Builders in the Steam Era
. Washington, D.C.: Bass, 1982.
Great Yellow Fleet: A History of American Railroad Refrigerator Cars
. Golden West Books, 1986
The American Railroad Freight Car: From the Wood-Car Era to the Coming of Steel
. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Administration
Processing Information
Collection processed by Robert harding and Don Darroch, June 2002. There has been some refinement by the processing archivists, but the collection primarily remains as it was when it was donated by White.
Author
Robert S. Harding and Don Darroch
Immediate Source of Acquisition
The manuscript was donated by Jack White in 1995.

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, ca. 1830-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Conditions Governing Access
Collection is open for research.
Conditions Governing Use
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Custodial History
Custodial History
This collection of railroad materials was begun many years ago by employees of the Smithsonian Institution, and maintained later by curators and museum specialists in the Division of Transportation, NMHT, later named the National Museum of American History (NMAH). The Collection was transferred from the Division of Transportation, NMAH to the Archives Center in the Spring of 2002.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Ephemera Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Manuscripts Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Writings Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Articles Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs -- 19th century Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photocopies Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Research Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Railroads -- History Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI. Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
P.O. Box 37012
Suite 1100, MRC 601
Washington, D.C. 20013-7012
archivescenter@si.edu