Guide to Frank Schiffman Apollo Theatre Collection
NMAH.AC.0540
Digitized Content

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAH.AC.0540
Creators:
Schiffman, Frank, ?-1972
Schiffman, Jack
Dates:
1931-1985
Languages:
English
Collection is in English.
Physical Description:
4 cubic feet
16 boxes
Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Scope and Contents note
Scope and Contents note
The Frank Schiffman Apollo Theater Collection documents the business endeavors of Frank Schiffman, and the Apollo Theater’s contribution to American culture. The collection includes sound recordings, personal and business correspondence, photographs, business records, and printed material. The collection is arranged in six series as follows:
Series 1: Correspondence, 1938-1985
, consists of etters and telegrams to/from Frank Schiffman, Jack Schiffman, and various business associates and friends. Correspondence are arranged by correspondent and thereunder chronologically.
Series 2: Business Records, 1931-1974
, includes financial ledgers; phone books; booking cards containing names, dates, and performance reviews; and accounting documents pertaining to the management of the Apollo Theater.
Series 3: Publicity, undated
, includes print media, pamphlets, scrapbooks, and flyers documenting the numerous performances and activities at the Apollo Theater. Several of the newsprint advertisements were reprinted in two books written about the Apollo Theater: Ted Fox’s Showtime at the Apollo Theater, and Jack Schiffman’s Uptown: The Story of Harlem’s Apollo Theater.
Series 4: Photographs, undated
primarily standard publicity stills of vocalists, comedians, musicians, and other artists who performed at the Apollo Theater, such as Lena Horne, Bo Diddley, Pearl Bailey, B.B. King, Jackson Five, Pigmeat Markham, Moms Mabley, Dick Gregory, Richard Pryor, and the Nicholas Brothers. Also includes candid shots of Frank Schiffman with business associates and friends. Similar to the print media, many of the photographs were used as illustrations in Ted Fox’s Showtime at the Apollo Theater, and Jack Schiffman’s Uptown: The Story of Harlem’s Apollo Theater.
Series 5: Ephemera, undated
, includes interview transcripts, various manuscripts, and architectural drawings of the Apollo Theater.
Series 6: Audio Recordings, 1940-1975
, contains promotional broadcasts, publicity shorts, and one random music album. All of the audio recordings in the Schiffman Collection originated on 1/4" open reel audio tape and have cassette reference copies.

Arrangement note
Arrangement note
The collection is arranged into six series.
Series 1: Photographs, 1938-1985
Series 2: Business Records, 1931-1974
Series 3: Publicity, undated
Series 4: Photographs, undated
Series 5: Ephemera, undated
Series 6: Audio Recordings, 1940-1975

Biographical/Historical note
Biographical/Historical note
The Apollo Theater is located in the Harlem section of New York City. A prominent and influential institution, the Apollo Theater hosted numerous performances by popular entertainers who were primarily African-American, including Ella Fitzgerald, Billy Holiday, Smokey Robinson, and the Temptations from the early 1930s to the present. It became best known as the site of "amateur night" programs, which catapulted many of its winners (and losers) to national and international acclaim. To this day, the Apollo Theater remains an important fixture in both the music industry and the African-American community.
The son of Austrian immigrants, Frank Schiffman began his career in the promotion and distribution of motion pictures in New York City. As his career grew, he managed various New York theaters such as the Lafayette and the Harlem Opera House. In 1934, Frank Schiffman became the first manager of the ApolloTheater. Soon thereafter, he became co-owner, and retained the management position until the early 1960s. Schiffman's lack of racial bias as well as his keen business sense helped the Apollo Theater to become a cultural icon within the performance industry. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, Schiffman's sons, Jack and Robert assisted him with the management of the Apollo, and later took over management when Frank Schiffman's retired. Frank Schiffman died in 1974 at the age of 80.

Administration
Processing Information note
Collection processed by Danielle Synder, 2002.
Author
Finding aid prepared by Danielle Snyder
Immediate Source of Acquisition note
Collection donated to the Archives Center by Jack and Robert Schiffman in January 1996.

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation note
Frank Schiffman Apollo Theatre Collection, 1935-1973, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Conditions Governing Access note
Collection is open for research. The scrapbooks in Series 5 are in extremely fragile condition. They cannot be made available for use until they are preserved.
Conditions Governing Use note
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Apollo Theatre (New York, N.Y.). Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Schiffman, Robert Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
African American entertainers--20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
African American musicians Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Awards Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Concerts--New York (State)--New York Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Entertainers--1930-1980 Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Handbills Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Harlem (New York, N.Y.)--20th century Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ledgers (account books) Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Music-halls--1930-1980 Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
New York (N.Y.)--20th century Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs--20th century Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Publicity photographs Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Scrapbooks--20th century Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Theaters--New York (State)--New York Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
P.O. Box 37012
Suite 1100, MRC 601
Washington, D.C., 20013-7012
Phone: 202-633-3270
archivescenter@si.edu