Guide to the D. Ward King Road Grader Collection
Digitized Content

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAH.AC.1332
Creators:
King, D. Ward
Dates:
1999
1903-1920
Languages:
English
Collection is in English.
Physical Description:
0.75 cubic feet
2 boxes
Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Photographs, publications and correspondence related to D. Ward King's invention the King Road Drag, or the Split-Oak drag, which improved rural travel in the early 20th century by introducing a simple design and low-effort system for grading poor-quality roads. The King Road Drag was promoted heavily across the United States and Canada via the "Good Roads Campaign" originally sponsored by the railroad companies in the early decades of the twentieth century.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
This collection contains photographs, correspondence and articles documenting the road drag that D. Ward King invented to grade, drain water from, and improve the condition of rural roads in the early 20th century. Included are photographs of King, his family, the road drag, and the conditions of roads before and after treatment; a scrapbook containing letters and photographs; a blueprint of the road drag; as well as articles and reprints from various publications praising King's invention.
This collection would be of interest to researchers of the Good Roads movement, rural life and development in the early 20th century, and agricultural invention.

Arrangement
Arrangement
This collection is arranged into three (3) series.
Series 1: Correspondence, 1907; 1909
Series 2: Publications, 1903; 1907-1917; 1999
Series 3: Photographs, circa 1905-1915; 1908-1910; 1919-1920

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
Born and educated in Springfield Ohio, David Ward King (1857-1920), who was known as D. Ward King, moved to rural Maitland, Missouri after his marriage in 1881 and began life as a farmer. In 1896, he demonstrated the use of his simple invention, dubbed the "King Road Drag" or the split-oak drag, which consisted of two split logs attached by crossbeams and hitched with a loop of chain to horses, to be dragged along a stretch of rutted muddy road until it was smooth. His rudimentary road grader had the effect not only of flattening and compacting muddy soil, but creating a crest in the center of the road, sloping down at each side, so that the next rain would run off the packed surface into the ditch. This basic scheme had a revolutionary effect on rural life--farmers were often mired in mud on the roads to their fields or into town, their most powerful draft horses unable to contend with wagon wheels sunken into deep ruts after heavy rains. Use of King's drag soon made their roads not only passable, but faster and safer to travel, which saved time and money for all in the community.
In 1903, King was employed by the Chicago and North Western Transportation Co. to promote his product across the country as part of their "Good Roads Campaign," giving lectures and demonstrations. King patented the King Road Drag (US Patent 884,497 and US Patent 1,102,671) in 1908 and later improved it in 1914. The United States Patent Office called his invention a "Road Grader," but King referred to it as a "split log drag," the "King Road Drag,"
Although King patented his invention, the simple design made it difficult to enforce patent rights, so farmers were encouraged to build and make use of their own versions of the road drag. Even after the railroads withdrew their support (the road drag's success had the effect of sending more potential passengers on the roads with their bicycles and cars, rather than riding the train), King made a decent living for years on the lecture circuit, presenting in 46 of the 48 then- existing states and Canada. His midwestern education made him an eloquent, dynamic speaker, and his talks were often sold out. The invention of the road drag and its almost evangelical use across the country has been credited for increased automobile use in the early part of the century, as well as the advent of parcel post delivery and mail-order catalogue supply to rural areas.

Administration
Processing Information
Processed by Sarah Hedlund, intern, 2016.
Author
Sarah Hedlund
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Collection donated by Helene W. King and Amy Burbank King in 2014.

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation
D. Ward King Road Grader Collection, 1903-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Conditions Governing Access
Collection is open for research.
Conditions Governing Use
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Articles -- 20th century Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Writings Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Roads -- Design and construction Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Blueprints -- 20th century Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1900-1950 Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photograph albums -- 20th century Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Reprints Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Poems Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Scrapbooks -- 20th century Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Road machinery Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Road scrapers Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Roads Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Roads -- Accessories Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Graders (Earthmoving machinery) Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century. Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Inventors -- 20th century -- United States Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Inventions Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Road drainage Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
P.O. Box 37012
Suite 1100, MRC 601
Washington, D.C. 20013-7012
archivescenter@si.edu