Arrow, Inc., and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Records, 1949-1999

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAI.AC.013
Creators:
Hunter, Dwight
American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association
Superneau, Regina
Arrow, Inc
Dates:
circa 1949-1999
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
96.5 linear feet
55 Paige boxes of unprocessed material. 96 Hollinger boxes of processed material.
Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center
These records, located in the Cultural Resources Center at NMAI, contain organizational records from ARROW, Inc. and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association (AITCJA). Included in this collection are both processed and unprocessed materials relating to the work conducted by these two organizations providing educational, financial and legal assistance to Native American communities.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
Virtually all the records in this collection concern projects undertaken by Arrow, Inc., and most are projects whose sponsorship was shared with the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association. Included are porposals, reports, relevant correspondence, and training materials. Most of these projects had been supported by the Department of Justice Legal Enforcement Assistance Administration, United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, and United States Department of Labor.

Arrangement note
Arrangement note
Records of Arrow, Inc., including (1) Industrial Park in Indian Areas; (2) supplemental scholarship assistance, 1961-1974; (3) monthly scholarship assistance, 1970-1972; (4) material concerning Crimial Court Procedures Manual: A Guide for American Indian Court Judges; (5) automatic diagnotic computer project, 1970; (6) Operation Mainstream; (7) social services case studies;
Records of the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association, including (8) family law/child welfare projects, circa 1974-1985; (9) American Indian court judges training project, circa 1971-1980; (10) criminal law training program, circa 1975-1984; (11) long-range planning study, 1976-1979; (12) court clerk training program, circa 1978-1983; (13) linkages for indian child welfare programs; (14) parenting program; (15) Indian child welfare training, 1982-1983; (16) child welfare act of 1978; (17) model court development project; (18) civil law training project; (19) Dwight Hunter's Portland area needs assessment; (20) technical proposal, 1981; (21) Warm Springs tribal court manual; (22) research grant, 1970-1971; (23) juvenile law and juvenile delinquency training project, 1971-1972; (24) resource directory/social services, 1977; (25) Regina Superneau correspondence; (26) international year of the child; (27) joint training sessions, NAICJA and National Tribal Chairmen's Association, Albuquerque, 1979; (28) criminal justice development project for the Great Lakes Intertribal Council, Inc.; (29) studies for American Indian Court Judges; (30) justice and the American Indian project; (31) reference material
The Unprocessed Matrial from Arrow, Inc. is unnaranged. It is still in its original shipping order.

Biographical/Historical note
Biographical/Historical note
Arrow, Inc. ("Americans for Restitution and Righting of Old Wrongs," frequently ARROW, Inc.) was initially known as the National Congress of American Indians Fund. It was incorporated in April 1949 under the laws of the District of Columbia by three trustees--Ruth M. Bronson, D'Arcy McNickle, and N.B. Johnson. Its founding was prompoted by the involvement of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) in alleviating the suffering of certain Southwestern tribes brought by a particularly harsh winter. Since the NCAI was engaged in political activities, its donors could not receive tax deductions for their contributions. In contrast, the NCAI Fund was dedicated to charitable and educational work among American Indians and was initially granted tax exempt status. Thus, its donors could receive tax benefits for contributions in spite of the fact that the Fund was regarded as an arm of the NCAI, itself essentially a political lobbying organization.
In time, questions arose about the close connection between the NCAI and the NCAI Fund and caused considerable anxiety for Fund officers since it potentially threatened the tax status. In October 1949, desire for greater distance from NCAI led to the adopition of the name Arrow, Inc. In truth, however, the close connections with the NCAI continued, for the NCAI business committee had the power to appoint and remove Arrow trustees. In 1952, NCAI abolished its business committee; and, with the approval of NCAI's officers, Arrow took the opportunity to eliminate references to NCAI from its bylaws. Nevertheless, close cooperation still continued for many years.
Starting in 1952, Arrow was an autonomous organization managed by a board of directors appointed by its members. Operating largely through grants and donations, Arrow used some of its funds to finance a publications program, including a newsletter called Arrow or, in a latter-day interpretation of ARROW as an acronym, American for the Restitution and Righting of Old Wrongs. Most monies, however, went into a wide variety of education and charitable projects. In the year 2000 Arrow, Inc. closed its doors.
A project undertaken by Arrow to improve tribal courts led directly to establishing the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association (AITCJA) in 1968. This ongoing organization, now with membership represeting almost all Indian Court judges, not only grew out of an Arrow activity but continued a close association with Arrow. only sharing executive director with Arrow as well as sponsorhsip of its projects with Arrow. Generaly, such projects involved educational activities designed to raise the standards and professionalism of Indian courts. In 1980, the National American Indian Court Clerks Association was established as an auxiliary of AITCJA.

Administration
Processing Information
The first two record groups of this collection were processed while being housed at the National Anthropological Archives. The materials from third record group are unprocessed. The inventory list that accompanied the unprocessed materials was created by Arrow, Inc. in 2001.
Author
NAA Staff
Immediate Source of Acquisition
The first two record groups in this collection, The Records of Arrow, Inc. and the Records of the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association were transferred from the National Anthropological Archives to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2007. The unprocessed materials from Arrow, Inc. were donated directly from Arrow, Inc. in 2001following the closure of the organization.

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Access
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Conditions Governing Use
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Preferred Citation
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Arrow, Inc. records, and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Proposals Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
American Indians -- Operation Mainstream Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Project files Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Child welfare -- American Indian Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
American Indians -- legal system Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Warms Springs -- court manual Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
American Indians -- scholarships Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Family law -- American Indian Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Minutes Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Correspondence Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Parenting -- American Indian Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Juvenile law -- American Indian Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Great Lakes Intertribal Council -- justice Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
United States Department of Labor Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
American Indian Tribal Court Clerks Association Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
United States Department of Justice Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center
4220 Silver Hill Rd
Suitland 20746-2863
nmaiarchives@si.edu
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