Dakota War cartes-de-visite, 1864-1865
Digitized Content

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAI.AC.098
Creators:
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886
Zimmerman, Charles A., 1844-1909
Dates:
circa 1864-1865
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
4 cartes-de-viste (card photographs)
Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
This collection consists of four cartes-de-visite portraits of Native American men involved in the Dakota War of 1862. Individuals were photographed by Joel Emmons Whitney between approximately 1864 and 1865. Reprints of these cartes-de-visite were later sold by Whitney and Charles Alfred Zimmerman in their St. Paul, Minnesota studio throughout the following decade. The individuals portrayed include: Hole in the Day (also known as Pogonaykeshick; Ojibwe), John Otherday (also known as Anpetutokeca; Dakota), Thomas Wakeman (also known as Wowinape; Dakota), and Shakopee (also known as Little Six; Dakota).

Arrangement
Arrangement
The materials in this collection were organized into 1 folder.

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
Joel Emmons Whitney (1822-1886) is considered the most influential pioneer photographer in Minnesota spanning the years 1851 to 1871. Whitney was born in Phillips, Maine in 1822, later moving to the St. Paul, Minnesota area in 1850, and establishing several successful photography studios there. His most common photographic works were cartes-de-visite depicting local landscapes, as well as portraits of Civil War soldiers and Native Americans in the Minnesota area. Whitney later partnered with Charles Alfred Zimmerman (1844-1909) and the two opened the Whitney and Zimmerman Studio shortly before Whitney ended his photography career in the early 1870s. He died in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1886, at age 63.

Administration
Processing Information
Processed by Nathan Sowry, Reference Archivist, in 2017.
Author
Nathan Sowry
Immediate Source of Acquisition
This collection was donated by Bridget Bly in 2015.

Container
1

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Access
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Preferred Citation
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Dakota War cartes-de-visite, Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Conditions Governing Use
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Related Materials
The Minnesota Historical Society holds a large collection of Joel E. Whitney cartes-de-visite, including the four included here. Further, the Minnesota Historical Photo Collectors Group published a 2001 catalog of Whitney's cartes-de-visite, titled Joel E. Whitney: Minnesota's Leading Pioneer Photographer.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Dakota (Eastern Sioux) Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Cartes-de-visite Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Minnesota Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Indians of North America -- Minnesota Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ojibwa Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Chippewa -- Minnesota place names Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Dakota Indians -- Wars, 1862-1865 Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Wakeman, Thomas, 1846-1886 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hole-in-the-Day, Chief, 1828-1868 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Shakopee, Chief, 1811-1865 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Otherday, John, -1869 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Museum of the American Indian
4220 Silver Hill Rd
Suitland 20746-2863
nmaiarchives@si.edu