A Finding Aid to the Mildred Constantine papers,
1945-2008
in the Archives of American Art
Digitized Content

Summary
Collection ID:
AAA.consmild
Creators:
Constantine, Mildred
Dates:
1945-2008
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
5.3 Linear feet
Repository:
The papers of Mildred Constantine measure 5.3 linear feet and are dated 1945-2009. Subject files, writings, photographs, and a scrapbook provide an overview of her curatorial work in the Architecture and Design department of the Museum of Modern Art, and subsequent activities as an independent curator, and art consultant. Especially well documented is Whole Cloth, a book written with Laurel Reuter that presents an historical overview of how artists have used cloth in their work.

Scope and Content Note
Scope and Content Note
The papers of Mildred Constantine measure 5.3 linear feet and are dated 1945-2008. Subject files, writings, photographs, and a scrapbook provide an overview of her curatorial work in the Architecture and Design department of the Museum of Modern Art, and subsequent activities as an independent curator, and art consultant. Especially well documented is the book Whole Cloth that she wrote with Laurel Reuter.
Correspondence, though mostly business related, often touches on personal matters since many of the artists and art world figures with whom she corresponded were also friends. Correspondents include Miguel Angel Corzo, Arthur C. Danto, Dorothy Dehner, Allen Hart (who sent more than 40 illustrated letters), Elizabeth Wilder and Donald L. Weisman. She also corresponded with many art institutions and organizations, among them the Cleveland Museum of Art, Independent International Design Conference, El Museo del Barrio, Museum of New Mexico, Ohio State University, Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Estate of David Smith.
Subject files reflect Constantine's activities and interests. A large portion of this series concerns Whole Cloth, a book written with Laurel Reuter that presents an historical look at how artists have used cloth in their work. Correspondence between the two authors, with artists, institutions, and others concerns researching and writing the volume. Also documented are the successes and failures of Constantine's decade long pursuit to publish the book. Other substantive files relate to the Cleveland Museum of Art, Getty Conservation Institute, Sheila Hicks, Jack Lenor Larsen, Rhode Island School of Design, and Soviet Film Posters. Files concerning the University of the Arts' 2003 Commencement include a videocassette.
Writings by Constantine are lecture material and notes. Also found are transcripts of interviews with Constantine and writings by others. Printed material includes newspaper and magazine articles about Constantine and her career. A scrapbook of printed material and photographs documents an exhibition of Latin American posters at the Library of Congress organized by Constantine.
Photographs of people include Mildred Constantine with family, friends, artists and others at public and private events around the world. Notable photographs include: Magdalena Abakanowicz, Anni Albers, Alfred Barr, Luis Barragan, Lou Block, Louise Bourgeois, Jagoda Buic, Elaine Lustig Cohen, Charles Coiner, James Marston Fitch, Mathias Goeritz, Ingeborg Ten Haeff, Ann d'Harnoncourt, Sheila Hicks, Richard Koch, Nancy Koenigsberg, Jack Lenor Larsen, Leo Lionni, Roberto Burle Marx, Ruth Reeves, Laurel Reuter, Eleanor Roosevelt, Ben Shahn, Massimo Vignelli, Ulfert Wilke, and Claire Zeisler. Also, there are photographs of artwork by a wide range of artists.

Arrangement
Arrangement
The Mildred Constantine papers are organized into 8 series.
  • Series 1: Biographical Material, 1947-1997 (Boxes 1, 6; 0.2 linear feet)
  • Series 2: Correspondence, 1964-2008 (Boxes 1, 6; 1.0 linear feet)
  • Series 3: Subject Files, 1964-2008 (Boxes 2-5; 3.3 linear feet)
  • Series 4: Writings, 1991-2008 (Box 5; 0.2 linear feet)
  • Series 5: Printed Material, 1961-2006 (Box 5; 0.2 linear feet)
  • Series 6: Photographs, 1993 (Box 5; 0.3 linear feet)
  • Series 7: Artwork, 1945 (Box 5; 1 folder)
  • Series 8: Scrapbook, circa 1940s (Box 6; 0.1 linear feet)

Biographical Note
Biographical Note
Curator and writer Mildred Constantine (1913-2008) was associated with the Museum of Modern Art's Department of Architecture and Design from 1943 to 1971. She then became an art consultant and independent curator, and wrote on fiber and textiles, decorative arts, photography, caricature and cartoons.
Mildred Constantine (known as "Connie") began her career at College Art Association. Hired as a stenographer in 1930, she soon was promoted to editorial assistant for Parnassus, the forerunner of Art Journal.
Constantine left the College Art Association in 1937 to study at New York University and earned BA and MA degrees. She then continued her education at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. In 1940, Constantine worked in the Office of Inter-American Affairs at the Library of Congress; it was there that she met René d'Harnoncourt.
Influenced by her 1936 travels in Mexico, Constantine's first curatorial effort was an exhibition of Latin American posters. Drawn from the collection of the Museum of Modern Art, the exhibition was held at the Library of Congress.
At the urging of René d'Harnoncourt, The Museum of Modern Art's Architecture and Design Department hired Constantine in 1943. The majority of her 28 year tenure at the museum was spent working with the department's founder, architect Philip Johnson. As a curator during the 1950s and 1960s, Constantine's innovative exhibitions brought lesser known portions of the museum's collection to public attention. Among her exhibtions were: "Words and Images," that focused on graphic design and posters; "Polio Posters," the first Museum of Modern Art show dedicated to social issues; "Olivetti: Design in Industry;" "Signs in the Street;" and "Lettering by Hand." She also published books on Art Nouveau, contemporary package design, and other subjects.
In 1971, Constantine left the Museum of Modern Art to become an independent curator and art consultant. Exhibitions included "Frontiers in Fiber: The Americans," and "Small Works in Fiber" with Jack Lenor Larsen. Tina Modotti: A Fragile Life, Constantine's book on the photographer, actress, model, and political activist, appeared in 1974. That same year, she and Alan Fern produced Revolutionary Soviet Film Posters that focused on works from the 1920s. Her last published work, Whole Cloth, was written with Laurel Reuter and published in 1997. Constantine continued to research and write, and at the time of her death was working on a large, international survey of the study of thread.
Mildred Constantine and Ralph W. Bettelheim (1909-1993) were married for 50 years. They had two daughters, Judith and Vicki.
Mildred Constantine died from heart failure on December 10, 2008, at home in Nyack, New York.

Administration
Processing Information
The papers were processed and a finding aid prepared by Justin Brancato in December of 2009.
Author
Justin Brancato
Immediate Source of Acquisition note
The papers were donated to the Archives in 2009 by Mildred Constantine's daughters, Judith Bettelheim and Vicki McDaniel.

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation
Mildred Constantine papers, 1945-2008. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Restrictions on Access
Use of origininal material requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Ownership and Literary Rights
The Mildred Constantine papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.

Related Material
Oral history interviews with Mildred Constantine were conducted for the Archives of American Art by Harlan Phillips, 1965 October 15, and by Paul Cummings, 1976 May 3-1976 August 26.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Film posters, Russian Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Scrapbooks Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Illustrated letters Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Textile fabrics in art Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Transcripts Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Video recordings Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Interviews Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Weisman, Donald M. Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Wilder, Elizabeth, 1908- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Wilke, Ulfert, 1907-1987 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Zeisler, Claire, 1903-1991 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Dehner, Dorothy, 1901-1994 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Smith, David, 1906-1965 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ten Haeff, Ingeborg, 1915- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Vignelli, Massimo Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Reuter, Laurel Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Cleveland Museum of Art Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Reeves, Ruth, 1892-1966 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Rhode Island School of Design Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.) -- Employees Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Museum of New Mexico Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Philadelphia Museum of Art Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ohio State University Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Koch, Richard H., d. 2009 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969 -- Photographs Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hicks, Sheila, 1934- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Lionni, Leo, 1910- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Larsen, Jack Lenor Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Getty Conservation Institute Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Fitch, James Marston Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hart, Allen M., 1925- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Goeritz, Mathias, 1915- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Danto, Arthur Coleman, 1924- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Corzo, Miguel Angel Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
D'Harnoncourt, Anne, 1943-2008 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Coiner, Charles T., 1897- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Cohen, Elaine Lustig, 1927- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Buic, Jagoda, 1930- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Burle Marx, Roberto, 1909-1994 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Block, Lou, 1895-1969 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Bourgeois, Louise, 1911-2010 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Barr, Alfred Hamilton, 1902- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Barragán, Luis, 1902- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Abakanowicz, Magdalena Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Albers, Anni Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Archives of American Art
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Victor Building, Suite 2200
Washington, D.C. 20001
https://www.aaa.si.edu/services/questions
https://www.aaa.si.edu/