Moses and Frances Asch Collection, 1926-1986
Digitized Content

Summary
Collection ID:
CFCH.ASCH
Creators:
Asch, Moses
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964
Folkways Records
Dates:
1926-1986
bulk 1948-1986
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
841 Cubic feet
Repository:
This collection, which dates from 1926-1986, documents the output of Moses Asch through the various record labels he founded and co-founded, and includes some of his personal papers. The Asch collection includes published recordings, master tapes, outtakes, business records, correspondence, photographs, and film.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
The Moses and Frances Asch Collection measures 841 cubic feet and dates from 1926-1987, with some contemporary, relevant correspondence, clippings, and ephemera added after 1987.
Most of the collection consists of audio recordings (commercial 78 rpm and long-playing records, open reel tapes, acetate discs, and test pressings), correspondence with recording artists and producers, artwork, photographs, ephemera, clippings, record production materials, writings, and business papers relating to Folkways Records. Materials relating to Folkways Records can be found primarily in the Correspondence, Folkways Production, Business Records, Photographs, Artwork, Sound Recordings, and Film series.
The collection also contains some biographical materials and personal correspondence, including materials related to Asch's first business, Radio Laboratories, located in the Biographical Materials series. Correspondence, ephemera, photographs, record production materials, business papers, and recordings relating to Asch's record labels before Folkways Records (Asch Recordings, Disc Company of America, Cub Records) are located in the Early Label Materials series as well as the Audio Recordings and Photographs series.

Arrangement note
Arrangement note
The collection is arranged in 10 series:
  • Series 1: Correspondence, 1942-1987
  • Series 2: Folkways Production, 1946-1987
  • Series 3: Business Records, 1940-1987
  • Series 4: Woody Guthrie papers, 1927-1985
  • Series 5: Early Label Materials, 1940-1949
  • Series 6: Biographical Materials, 1926-1987
  • Series 7: Photographs
  • Series 8: Artwork
  • Series 9: Audio Recordings
  • Series 10: Film
At this time, the collection is partially processed. Please contact rinzlerarchives@si.edu for more information.

Biographical/Historical note
Biographical/Historical note
The son of Yiddish writer Sholem Asch, Moses Asch was born in Poland in 1905. His childhood was spent in Poland, France, Germany, and New York. While young, Asch developed an interest in radio electronics, which ultimately lead him to his life's work, recording the music and sounds of the world. He established several record labels in succession, sometimes partnering with other record companies. Two of his fist record companies, Asch Recordings and DISC Co. of America, went bankrupt. They were followed by his best-known label, Folkways Records, which was founded in 1948 with Marian Distler (1919-1964). He was still working on Folkways recordings when he died in 1986.
Folkways Records sought to document the entire world of sound. The 2,168 titles Asch released on Folkways include traditional and contemporary music from around the world, spoken word in many languages, and documentary recordings of individuals, communities, and current events. Asch's business practices revolved around the commitment to keep every recording issued by Folkways in print, despite low sales. Asch stayed afloat by cutting costs where he could (such as color printing) and offering a high-quality product, meticulously recorded and accompanied by extensive liner notes. In doing this, he could charge a slightly higher price than other commercial outfits. Despite a tenuous relationship with financial solvency, Folkways grew to be not only one of the most important independent record companies in the United States in the 20th century, but also one of the largest and most influential record companies in the world.
Moses Asch's record labels featured famous and lesser known American writers, poets, documentarians, ethnographers, and grass roots musicians on commercial recordings. American folk icon Woody Guthrie recorded on the Asch, Disc, and Folkways labels, and the Asch Collection includes some of his correspondence, lyrics, drawings, and writings. The collection also includes correspondence with other notable musicians and artists such as John Cage, Langston Hughes, Margaret Walker, Huddie "Lead Belly" Ledbetter, Pete Seeger, Peggy Seeger, Ewan MacColl, Alan Lomax, Henry Cowell, and Kenneth Patchen. Also in the collection are ethnographic field notes and photographs by as well as correspondence with Béla Barók, Sidney Robertson Cowell, Harold Courlander, Helen Creighton, Laura Boulton, and Samuel Charters. Asch hired various prominent artists and graphic designers including David Stone Martin, Ben Shahn, John Carlis, and Ronald Clyne to create album cover art for his recordings. Much of the original art and designs for these covers can be found in the Asch Collection.
Asch's output of recordings on various labels, including published recordings, open reel master tapes, outtakes, and acetate disks, in addition to his business papers, correspondence, photographs, and other files were acquired by the Smithsonian Institution in 1987. The collection came to the Smithsonian with the understanding that all 2168 titles under the Folkways label would be kept available in perpetuity.

Administration
Processing Information note
An original, basic processing of the Moses and Frances Asch Collection was done following its donation and arrival at the Smithsonian, later augmented by the work of archivist Jeff Place. Following a Preservation Prioritization Survey conducted by Nora Lockshin of the Smithsonian Center for Archives Conservation, the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections received an award from the Collections Care and Preservation Fund to support a more complete processing of the Asch Collection. In 2009-2011, the collection was analyzed and re-organized by Cecilia Peterson to group like materials together in series and chronologically thereafter. Correspondence was additionally arranged alphabetically by last name or corporate name. Basic preservation practices were also employed in the rehousing of materials, removing of fasteners, protection of vulnerable materials, and the removal of highly acidic carbon copies and clippings. The acidic materials were contaminating the collection and were therefore replaced with acid-free copies.
Author
Cecilia Peterson, Greg Adams, Jeff Place, Stephanie Smith, Meghan Mullins, Clara Hines, Bianca Couture
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Ralph Rinzler arranged the Smithsonian's acquisition of the Moses and Frances Asch Collection in 1987, beginning with Asch before his death in 1986 and continuing with extensive discussions between Rinzler and the Asch family. Since its acquisition, archivist Jeff Place and others have added contemporary, relevant correspondence with Folkways artists and related individuals.

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Conditions Governing Access note
Access by appointment only. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at rinzlerarchives@si.edu or (202) 633-7322 for additional information.
Conditions Governing Use note
Copyright restrictions apply. Contact archives staff for additional information.

Other Finding Aids note
Other Finding Aids note
An inventory of the audio recordings in this collection is available.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Folk music Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Folk dance music Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Electronic music Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Oral interpretation of poetry Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Oral interpretation of fiction Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Music -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Music -- 19th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Music -- 18th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Jazz Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Folk music -- United States Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
World music Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sounds Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Business records Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Correspondence Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Vocal music Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Phonograph records Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographic prints Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Audiotapes Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ramsey, Frederic, 1915-1995 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Seeger, Pete, 1919-2014 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Courlander, Harold, 1908-1996 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Guthrie, Woody, 1912-1967 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Leadbelly, 1885-1949 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Jenkins, Ella Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
600 Maryland Ave SW
Washington, D.C.
rinzlerarchives@si.edu
https://www.folklife.si.edu/archive/