John Marshall Ju/'hoan Bushman film and video collection,
1950-2000
Portions of this collection are digitized

Summary
Collection ID:
HSFA.1983.11
Creators:
McElwee, Ross
Blitz, Daniel
Bishop, John Melville
Baker, Peter
Ritchie, Claire
Young, Robert
Terry, John
Galvin, Frank
Bestall, Clifford
Gardner, Robert
Asch, Timothy, 1932-1994
Marshall, John, 1932-2005 (ethnographic filmmaker)
Marshall, Lorna
Dates:
1950-2000
Languages:
Collection is in
English
and
Ju/'hoan
. Audiovisual material is in
Ju/'hoan
with some
English
. The rest of the collection is in
English
.
Physical Description:
2 Boxes
map drawers
3 Video recordings
published videos or video series
99 Linear feet
714,405 feet (332 hours) 16mm film, 435 hours video tape, 309 hours audio tape, 21 published film and video titles, 29 unpublished film and video titles, 14 linear feet paper records
Repository:
The John Marshall Ju/'hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection contains full film and video projects (outtake material), film production elements and edited films and videos, audio tapes, still photographs, negatives, transparencies, slides, published and unpublished writing by John Marshall and others, study guides for edited films, Nyae Nyae Development Foundation and Advocacy files, maps, and production files that include letters, shot logs, translations, transcriptions, editing logs, treatments, and proposals spanning from 1950-2000. This material comprises Marshall's long-term documentary record of the Ju/'hoansi of the Nyae Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert in northeastern Namibia. A great deal of the film and video footage focuses on one particular extended family, that of Toma Tsamko, whose ancestral home is at /Gautcha, an area with a large salt pan and a permanent waterhole. The life stories of some family members are captured in the footage; appearing as children in the 1950's, middle-aged parents in the 1980's, and pensioners in the final years of visual documentation. The Marshall Collection also documents other Ju/'hoansi living in Nyae Nyae and elsewhere, their relationships with neighboring ethnic groups, and national politics that affected Ju/'hoansi. Marshall also documented the local political body (the Nyae Nyae Farmers' Cooperative, or NNFC), the foundation he started (the Nyae Nyae Development Foundation of Namibia, or NNDFN), and the ways in which both groups worked with and were affected by international development organizations and foreign aid during the 1990's.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
The John Marshall Ju/'hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection contains full film and video projects (outtake material), film production elements and edited films and videos, audio tapes, still photographs, negatives, transparencies, slides, published and unpublished writing by John Marshall and others, study guides for edited films, Nyae Nyae Development Foundation and Advocacy files, maps, and production files that include letters, shot logs, translations, transcriptions, editing logs, treatments, and proposals spanning from 1950-2000.
This material comprises Marshall's long-term documentary record of the Ju/'hoansi of the Nyae Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert in northeastern Namibia. A great deal of the film and video footage focuses on one particular extended family, that of Toma Tsamko, whose ancestral home is at /Gautcha, an area with a large salt pan and a permanent waterhole. The life stories of some family members are captured in the footage; appearing as children in the 1950's, middle-aged parents in the 1980's, and pensioners in the final years of visual documentation. Beginning in 1978, Marshall often conducted lengthy and in depth interviews with many family members, in which they reflect on past, present, and future, and often comment on specific film footage from earlier years which was shown to them during the interviews. The collection is not limited to the /Gautcha family, however; it also documents other Ju/'hoansi living in Nyae Nyae and elsewhere, their relationships with neighboring ethnic groups, and national politics that affected Ju/'hoansi. Marshall also documented the local political body (the Nyae Nyae Farmers' Cooperative, or NNFC), the foundation he started (the Nyae Nyae Development Foundation of Namibia, or NNDFN), and the ways in which both groups worked with and were affected by international development organizations and foreign aid during the 1990's. The collection also documents changes to the landscape and wildlife of the Nyae Nyae region.

Arrangement
Arrangement
This collection is arranged in 13 series: (1) Unedited Film and Video Projects, 1950-1978, 1981-2003; (2) Published Films and Videos, 1952-2002; (3) Unpublished Films and Videos, 1959-1962, circa 1965; (4) Audio, 1950s, 1978-1990; (5) Field Notes, Shot Logs, Translations, 1951-2000; (6) Production Files, 1952-2004; (7) Correspondence, 1968-2003 [bulk 1993-2000]; (8) Nyae Nyae Development Foundation & Advocacy Files, 1975-2003 [bulk 1984-2003]; (9) Published and Unpublished Writing, 1957-1958, 1980-1999, 2007; (10) Study Guides, 1974, 1982; (11) Writings by Others & Press, 1952-1953, 1965-2005; (12) Photographs, 1930s, 1946-2003; (13) Maps, 1872, 1879, 1914, 1933-1989.

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
John Marshall, filmmaker and activist, was born on November 12, 1932 in Boston, Massachusetts. He grew up in Cambridge, Massachusetts and on his family's farm in Peterborough, New Hampshire. Marshall first picked up a camera in 1950, at the age of 18, during the first of several expeditions to the Kalahari organized by his father, Laurence Marshall, the founding president of the Raytheon Corporation. The whole Marshall family - including John's mother, Lorna, and sister, Elizabeth Marshall Thomas - became engaged in a multi-disciplinary study of the Ju/'hoansi. Marshall's father assigned him the task of making a documentary film record of Ju/'hoan life and culture. Between 1950 and 1958, he shot over 300,000 feet of 16mm film (157 hours).
Marshall formed a close bond with many of his Ju/'hoan subjects, particularly with Toma "Stumpy" Tsamko, leader of the /Gautcha band. Amongst Ju/'hoansi, Marshall was known as Toma Xhosi, Toma "Longface". Probably because of this close relationship, he was forced to leave South West Africa in 1958 after his visa expired, and was not allowed back for twenty years.
During the 1960's and 1970's, Marshall became well-established as a cinema vérité filmmaker. After leaving the Film Study Center at Harvard, which he had co-directed with Robert Gardner, he worked briefly with Robert Drew and D.A. Pennebaker, and later collaborated with Fredrick Wiseman on Titicut Follies (1967). He forged friendships with leading documentary and ethnographic filmmakers, including Timothy Asch, Ricky Leacock, and Jean Rouch.
Throughout these years, Marshall continued to work with his extensive footage of Ju/'hoansi. He completed 15 short films, as well as the award-winning Bitter Melons. In 1968, Marshall partnered with Tim Asch to found Documentary Educational Resources (DER), to distribute and support the creation of ethnographic and educational film.
In 1978 Marshall was allowed to return to Nyae Nyae to shoot N!ai, the Story of a !Kung Woman. Finding his Ju/'hoan friends beset by illness, poverty, and growing social ills, John turned his attentions to development and advocacy work. Virtually abandoning his filmmaking career, Marshall started a foundation to assist Ju/'hoansi and spent most of the 1980's helping them establish water access, subsistence farming, and a local government. He began using film as an advocacy tool, and released several urgent, issuefocused videos to raise awareness of the Ju/'hoan struggle for self-determination.
Marshall continued his documentary record of Ju/'hoansi, directing his final shoot in 2000. A Kalahari Family (2002), his epic six-hour series, tells the story of the Ju/'hoansi from 1950-2000 and charts Marshall 's evolution from filmmaker to activist. He made his final visit to Nyae Nyae in 2004, and continued his advocacy work right up to his final days. John Marshall died due to complications from lung cancer on April 22, 2005.
John Marshall Chronology
1932
Born in Boston, Massachusetts
1950-1958
Marshall Family expeditions to study the Ju/'hoansi of Nyae Nyae
1957
Awarded B.A. in Anthropology from Harvard University
The Hunters
released
1958-1960
Associate Director (with Robert Gardner) of the Film Study Center, Peabody Museum, Harvard University
1960
Awarded G.S.A.S. in Anthropology from Yale University
1960-1963
Director, Bushmen Film Unit, Harvard University
1962
Sha//ge Curing Ceremony
(early version of
A Curing Ceremony
),
A Group of Women
and
Joking Relationship
screened at Flaherty Seminar
1964-1965
Cameraman for NBC covering civil war in Cyprus
1966
Awarded M.A. in Anthropology from Harvard University
1967
Cameraman and Co-Director of Fredrick Wiseman's
Titicut Follies
1968
Founded Documentary Educational Resources (DER) with Timothy Asch (first known as CDA, Center for Documentary Anthropology)
1968-1969
Cameraman and Director of film shoots for the
Pittsburgh Police
series, produced through the Center for Violence Studies at Brandeis University
1970-1974
Edited and released numerous short films, from both Ju/'hoan (!Kung) and
Pittsburgh Police
series
1972
Collaborated with Nicholas England (musicologist) on a film project documenting a family of drummers in Ghana (this film was never completed)
1972-1973
Travel to Botswana to film National Geographic's
Bushmen of the Kalahari
, produced by Wolper Productions
1974
If It Fits
, documentary on failing shoe industry in Haverhill, MA, released
1976
Director and cameraman of film shoots for Smithsonian Festival of American Folklife
1978
Film shoot in Nyae Nyae for
N!ai, The Story of a !Kung Woman
1980
N!ai, The Story of a !Kung Woman
released and broadcast on PBS as partof the
Odyssey
series
1980-1982
Conducted genealogical survey in Nyae Nyae with Claire Ritchie
1982
Founded the Ju/wa Cattle Fund (later known as the Nyae Nyae Development Foundation of Namibia)
1985
Pull Ourselves Up or Die Out
, Marshall's first "field report" edited on video, released
1989
Returns to Boston after Namibian independence
1991
To Hold Our Ground
, another "field report" is aired on Namibian television shortly before a national Land Rights Conference
1993
The Cinema of John Marshall
published
1995
Awarded Honorary M.F.A. from Rhode Island School of Design
2000
Final video shoot in Nyae Nyae
2002
A Kalahari Family
premieres at the Margaret Mead Film Festival in New York City; released for general distribution in 2003
2004
Makes final visit to Nyae Nyae; presents proposal for water point protections
2005
Dies in Boston, Massachusetts

Administration
Author
Karma Foley and Rihoko Ueno
Sponsor
Finding aid has been funded through generous support from the Arcadia Fund.
Custodial History
The John Marshall Ju/'hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection, 1950-2000 is comprised of several individual accessions. In 1983 John Marshall deposited the film and audio created from 1950-1978. Prior to that time, the materials were held in various locales in the Boston, MA area where Marshall lived and worked.
In 2005, 2008 and 2009, Cynthia Close, Executive Director of Documentary Educational Resources (DER), deposited the audiovisual materials, paper records, and photographs created from 1981-2000, as well as published and unpublished films and videos. These materials had been held in DER's offices and in a storage warehouse near Boston, MA.
In 2008, maps and additional paper records were deposited by Marshall's wife, Dr. Alexandra Eliot Marshall. These materials had been kept at her home near Boston, MA. The older maps had been stored in the attic since 1992; prior to that they had been in Lorna Marshall's home in Cambridge, MA. Some newer maps had been located in Marshall's home in Peterborough, NH. In 2009, Mrs. Marshall also deposited master video elements for A Kalahari Family; these had been stored at DER's offices.
Immediate Source of Acquisition
The John Marshall Ju/'hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection was received over several years of accessioning from different parties.
Processing Information
The film and video projects were kept in their original, numbered order, which in most cases is the original shooting order. Likewise, original field audio recordings have been organized in chronological order by sound roll number. Published and unpublished films and videos have been organized alphabetically.
The titles for published films and videos are written in all caps. "Known as" titles for unpublished works are written in title case. Assigned titles are placed within square brackets.
The paper records in this collection were received partially organized; they have now been arranged in several series and subseries. Original folder titles were generally retained, with assigned titles placed within square brackets.
For details on the processing of the 83.11 accession, see John Bishop's processing report and his article, Hot Footage/Cold Storage. There are also processing reports for the 2005.11, 2008.8, 2008.9, and 2008.10 accessions.
Thanks to Mark White and Pamela Wintle for guidance in processing this collection, and to Daisy Njoku and Lorain Wang for assistance in crafting this guide.
Processed by Karma Foley, April 2009.
Encoded by Rihoko Ueno, December 2011.
Revisions encoded by Jan Danek, October, 2017.

Orthography Note
Orthography Note
Ju/'hoansi are the speakers of the Ju/'hoan language. Various cultural descriptors used over the years include !Kung which is a language group containing three dialect groups, one of which is the Ju/'hoansi; San, which is now regarded by the Ju/'hoansi to have negative connotations; and Bushman, which ironically (given the derogatory history of this term) is now preferred by the Ju/'hoansi as a term of dignity. (Orthography information provided by Dr. Polly Wiessner, University of Utah anthropologist and longtime field worker among and researcher of the Ju/'hoansi.)
The orthography of the Ju/'hoan language has changed many times, though an official orthography was agreed upon and accepted by the Namibian government in 1991. The finding aid, cataloging records, and shot logs for the Marshall collection at Human Studies Film Archives continue to use the orthography used by the Marshall family beginning in 1950. These spellings are usually anglicized versions of the official orthography. For example, the name ≠Oma was usually rendered by the Marshalls as Toma; the place name /Aotcha as /Gautcha or Gautscha.
The majority of the footage was shot in a region of Namibia (formerly South West Africa) known as Nyae Nyae. In the 1960's, a portion of the Nyae Nyae area was officially established as a homeland for Ju/'hoansi by the South West African administration. This area, once called Eastern Bushmanland, is now known as Eastern Otjozondjupa, however it is still referred to as Nyae Nyae by Ju/'hoansi and others. The Nyae Nyae Conservancy, which encompasses a large portion of Eastern Otjozondjupa, was established in 1996.

Filmography
Filmography
JU/'HOAN BUSHMAN FILM SERIES
1952
First Film [also known as
!Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari
] (by Lorna Marshall)
1957
The Hunters
1959
A Curing Ceremony
1961
A Group Of Women
1962
A Joking Relationship
1966
!Kung Bushmen Hunting Equipment
(directed by Lorna Marshall)
1969
N/um Tchai: The Ceremonial Dance of the !Kung Bushmen
1969
An Argument About A Marriage
1970
The Lion Game
1970
The Melon Tossing Game
1971
Bitter Melons
1972
Debe's Tantrum
1972
Men Bathing
1972
Playing With Scorpions
1972
A Rite of Passage
1972
The Wasp Nest
1974
Baobab Play
1974
Children Throw Toy Assegais
1974
The Meat Fight
1974
Tug-Of-War
1980
N!ai, the Story of a !Kung Woman
1985
Pull Ourselves Up Or Die Out
1990
To Hold Our Ground: A Field Report
1991
Peabody Museum !Kung San Exhibit Video
2002
A Kalahari Family
In addition to Marshall's many published films on the Ju/'hoansi, he was also involved in a variety of other film projects. He shot and co-directed
Titicut Follies
, a film by Fredrick Wiseman. Working in association with the Lemburg Center for Violence Studies at Brandeis University, he shot and directed a series of short films about a police squad in Pittsburgh, PA, known as the
Pittsburgh Police
series. He also shot and directed
If It Fits
, a film about the failing shoe industry in Haverhill, MA. Marshall was also the subject of two television programs:
Bushmen of the Kalahari
, a National Geographic special which aired in the United States, and a Japanese program called
Forty Years in the Kalahari
, part of the television series,
Our Wonderful World
. All of these, as well as Marshall's Ju/'hoan films, are included in this filmography.
PITTSBURGH POLICE SERIES
1970
Inside/Outside Station 9
1971
Three Domestics
1971
Vagrant Woman
1972
901/904
1972
Investigation of a Hit and Run
1973
After the Game
1973
The 4th, 5th, & Exclusionary Rule
1973
A Forty Dollar Misunderstanding
1973
Henry Is Drunk
1973
The Informant
1973
A Legal Discussion of a Hit and Run
1973
Manifold Controversy
1973
Nothing Hurt But My Pride
1973
Two Brothers
1973
$21 or 21 Days
1973
Wrong Kid
1973
You Wasn't Loitering
OTHER FILMS
1967
Titicut Follies
(Co-Director, Cinematographer; film by Fredrick Wiseman)
1972
Ghana Drumming
(uncompleted; collaboration with Nicholas England)
1974
Bushmen of the Kalahari
(by Wolper Productions for National Geographic)
1975
Vermont Kids
(series of short films; released in 2007)
1976
Festival of American Folklife
(uncompleted; shot for Smithsonian Institution)
1978
If It Fits
1988
Our Wonderful World: Forty Years in the Kalahari
(by Nippon A-V Productions)

Digital Content

Publications about Marshall's Work
Publications about Marshall's Work
Anderson, Carolyn and Thomas Benson
1991 Tödliche Mythen, Die sichtbare und die unsichtbare Realität,
The Hunters
, Ein Interview von C. Anderson und T. Benson. In R. Kapfer, W. Petermann, and R. Thoms (Eds.),
Jäger und Gejagdte: John Marshall und Seine Filme
, pp. 9-50, 103-117, 118-122, 135-164. München: Trickster Verlag.
1993
Put Down the Camera and Pick Up the Shovel: An Interview with John Marshall.
In Jay Ruby (Ed.),
The Cinema of John Marshall
, pp 135-168. Philadelphia: Harwood Academic Publishers.
Asch, Patsy
2007 From Bushmen to Ju/'Hoansi: A Personal Reflection on the Early Films of John Marshall. In Beate Engelbrecht (Ed.),
Memories of the Origins of Ethnographic Film
, pp. 71-85. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Asch, Timothy and Patsy Asch
1987 Images that Represent Ideas: The use of Films on the !Kung to TeachAnthropology. In Megan Biesele (Ed.),
The Past and Future of !KungEthnography: Critical Reflections and Symbolic Perspectives
. Hamburg:Helmut Buske Verlag.
Biesele, Megan
1993 The Future of the Bushmen's Past: Developing People and Pictures. In Jay Ruby (Ed.),
The Cinema of John Marshall
, pp. 205-212. Philadelphia:Harwood Academic Publishers.
Bishop, John
1993 Hot Footage/Cold Storage: The Marshall Ju/'hoan Bushman Archive. In Jay Ruby (Ed.),
The Cinema of John Marshall
, pp. 213-230. Philadelphia:Harwood Academic Publishers.
2008 Life by Myth: The Development of Ethnographic Filming in the World of John Marshall. In Beate Engelbrecht (Ed.),
Memories of the Origins of Ethnographic Film
, pp. 87-94. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Cabezas, Sue Marshall
1993 Filmography of the Works of John Marshall. In Jay Ruby (Ed.),
The Cinema of John Marshall
, pp. 231-268. Philadelphia: Harwood Academic Publishers.
Dickens, Patrick
1994
English-Ju|'hoan / Ju|'hoan-English Dictionary
. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
Draper, Patricia
1974 Review of
!Kung Bushman Film Series
by John Marshall.
American Anthropologist, 76
(3), pp. 689-691.
Durington, Matthew
2004 Review Essay: John Marshall's Kalahari Family.
American Anthropologist, 106
(3), pp. 589-594.
Gonzalez, Nancy
1993 An argument about a film. In Jay Ruby (Ed.),
The Cinema of John Marshall
, pp. 179-194. Philadelphia: Harwood Academic Publishers.
Gordon, Robert
2003 Introduction: Essays on
A Kalahari Family. Visual Anthropology Review, 19
(1,2), pp. 102-113.
Homiak, John
2003
A Kalahari Family
: Some Thoughts on Reflexivity, Voice and Social Location.
Visual Anthropology Review, 19
(1, 2), pp. 128-134.
Homiak, John and Keyan Tomaselli
1999 Structured Absences: Shot Logs on the Marshall Family Expeditionary Films,1950-1958.
Visual Anthropology 12
, pp. 289-338.
Lomax, Alan
1972 Review of
Bitter Melons. American Anthropologist, 74
, 1018-20.
Ritchie, Claire
1993 Death by Myth: Ethnographic Film and the Development Struggle. In JayRuby (Ed.),
The Cinema of John Marshall
, pp. 195-204. Philadelphia: Harwood Academic Publishers.
Shankar, Guha
2003 The Kalahari Family: John Marshall's Films and the Promise of PartialEthnography.
Visual Anthropology Review, 19
(1,2), pp. 135-140.
Sylvain, Renee
2003 Between Rock Art and a Hard Place: Development and Display in theKalahari.
Visual Anthropology Review, 19
(1,2), pp. 141-148.
Speeter-Blaudszun, Sonja
2004
Die Expeditionen der Familie Marshall: Eine Untersuchung zur ethnographischen Erforschung der Nyae Nyae !Kung.
Münster: Lit Verlag.
Tomaselli, Keyan
2004 John Marshall's Kalahari Family.
American Anthropologist, 106
(3), pp. 589-594.
Tomaselli, Keyan and John Homiak
1999 Powering Popular Conceptions: The !Kung in the Marshall Family ExpeditionFilms of the 1950s.
Visual Anthropology, 12
, pp. 153-184.
Wiessner, Polly
2003 Owners of the Future? Calories, Cash, Casualties and Self-Sufficiency in theNyae Nyae Area between 1996 and 2003.
Visual Anthropology Review, 19
(1,2), pp. 149-159.
Wilmsen, Edwin
1991 Die Dokumentation war ein Vermächtnis: John Marshalls San-Filme inhistorischer Perspektive. In R. Kapfer, W. Petermann, and R. Thoms (Eds.),
Jäger und Gejagdte: John Marshall und Seine Filme
, pp. 80-102. München:Trickster Verlag.
1999 Knowledge as the Source of Progress: The Marshall Family Testament to the"Bushmen".
Visual Anthropology 12
, pp. 213-265.
2003 A Kalahari Family Named Marshall: "I want a record, not a movie".
VisualAnthropology Review, 19
(1,2), pp. 114-127.

Marshall Family Publications
Marshall Family Publications
Marshall, Lorna
1976
The !Kung of Nyae Nyae
. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
1999
Nyae Nyae !Kung Beliefs and Rites
. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall
1959
The Harmless People
. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
2006
The Old Way
. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Selected Bibliography
Selected Bibliography
Marshall, John
1957 Ecology of the Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari. Senior Honors Thesis,Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1958 Man as a hunter: huntsmen of Nyae Nyae.
Natural History, 67
, 291-309, 376-395.
1984 Death Blow to the Bushmen.
Cultural Survival Quarterly, 8
(3), 13-16.
1985a Plight of the Bushmen.
Leadership S.A., 4
(1), 36-48.
1985b Review of the Report:
Survey of the Bushmen Population in S.W.A.
, by Francois Marais et. al. Windhoek, Namibia: Ju/'hoan Bushman Development Foundation.
1988 Bushmanland: Lives in the Balance (letter).
African Wildlife
, 42(6), 357.
1989 The Constitution and Communal Lands in Namibia, Land Rights and LocalGovernments: The Ju/wa Case. Windhoek, Namibia: Nyae Nyae DevelopmentFoundation.
1991 Local Development or Poverty and Debt? The Future of Communal Lands inNamibia. Windhoek, Namibia: Nyae Nyae Development Foundation ofNamibia.
1993 Filming and learning. In Jay Ruby (Ed.),
The Cinema of John Marshall
, pp. 1-134. Philadelphia: Harwood Academic Publishers
Marshall, John, Timothy Asch and Peter Spier
1973 Ethnographic film: structure and function.
Annual Review of Anthropology, 2
,179-187.
Marshall, John and Emilie de Brigard
1975 Idea and Event in Urban Film. In Paul Hockings (Ed.),
Principles of VisualAnthropology
, pp. 133-145. The Hague, Paris: Mouton Publishers.
Marshall, John and Charles Hartung
1986 Ju/Wa Bushman Rural Development Project. Report submitted by the Ju/'hoanBushman Development Foundation to the Government of Namibia.
Marshall, John and O. Levinson
1984 A People in Jeopardy.
Windhoek Observer
, Dec. 14.
Marshall, John and Claire Ritchie
1982 Husbandry in Eastern Bushmanland. Development Plan Submitted to theGovernment of Namibia.
1984
Where Are the Ju/Wasi of Nyae Nyae? Changes in a Bushman Society: 1958-1981
. Cape Town: University of Cape Town African Studies Program.
1989 Ju/Wa Concepts of Property and Land Ownership. Windhoek, Namibia:Ju/'hoan Bushman Development Foundation.
Marshall, John, Claire Ritchie, and J.R. Gordon
1984 Open letter on the Ju/'hoansi of Bushmanland.
Cultural Survival Quarterly8
(1), 84.

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Access
The John Marshall Ju/'hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection is open for research. Please contact the Archives for availabilty of access copies of audio visual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played. Materials relating to Series 6 Production Files are restricted and not available for research until 2048, 2063, 2072. Kinship diagrams in Series 13 are restricted due to privacy concerns. Various copyrights and restrictions on commercial use apply to the reproduction or publication of film, video, audio, photographs, and maps.
Conditions Governing Use
Contact the repository for terms of use. Information on reproduction and fees available from repository.
Preferred Citation
The John Marshall Ju/'hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection, 1950-2000, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Related Materials
The Human Studies Film Archives holds several related collections, including:
• The Nicholas England Collection, which consists of audio recordings from 1951-1961. This collection contains both originals and duplicates of audio tapes recorded during the Marshall Expeditions. (2005.9) • The Journal of Robert Gesteland, kept during the Marshall !Kung Expedition VI, 1957-58. (2007.17) • Master copies of the full film record of
Bushmen of the Kalahari
(1974), a television program featuring John Marshall's 1973 visit to the /Gwi San of Botswana, produced by Wolper Productions for National Geographic. (2008.12) • Reference copies of the full video record of
Our Wonderful World: Forty Years in the Desert
, Nippon A-V's 1988 Japanese television program about John Marshall and the Ju/Wa Bushman Development Foundation. (2009.2.1) • Master copies of the videotape "library" kept by John Marshall for reference and stock footage purposes. Compiled from various sources, the videos include news programs, documentaries, and raw footage of Ju/'hoansi and other San peoples from the 1920's --1990's, as well as interviews with John Marshall and his mother, Lorna Marshall. (2009.2) • Additional audio recordings, including interviews with Ju/'hoansi made by John Marshall and others. (2009.3) • Full film record of [Ghana Drumming, 1972], an uncompleted project undertaken by John Marshall and Nicholas England, which documents a family of musicians. (2008.11)
The Papers of Timothy Asch, held at the National Anthropological Archives, contain information on Asch's work with John Marshall at Harvard University from 1959-1963, their collaboration in founding DER, and details on the use of Marshall's Ju/'hoan footage in the development of MACOS (Man, A Course of Study).
There are also several closely related collections held at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University. These collections relate to the 1950's Marshall Expeditions and include: Expeditionary Notebooks and Journals of Lorna and Laurence Marshall; Journal of Elizabeth Marshall Thomas; the Marshall Family Photograph Collection; and the Records of the South West Africa Expeditions, 1950- 1959. The Harvard Film Archive, Harvard University, holds film prints of several of Marshall's published films on the Ju/'hoansi, including
The Hunters
.

More Information

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
San (African people) Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Anthropology Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Namibia Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Bushman Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Documentary films Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Human Studies Film Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland 20746
hsfa@si.edu
http://www.anthropology.si.edu/naa