Beatrice Medicine papers (1914, 1932-1949, 1952-2003)

Summary
Collection ID:
NAA.1997-05
Creators:
Medicine, Beatrice
Dates:
1914, 1932-1949, 1952-2003 (bulk dates, 1945-2003).
Languages:
English
.
Physical Description:
28 Linear feet
65 document boxes, 1 box of oversize materials, 1 box of ephemera, 1 shoebox of index cards, 1 map drawer
Repository:
The Beatrice Medicine papers, 1913-2003 (bulk 1945-2003), document the professional life of Dr. Beatrice "Bea" Medicine (1923-2005), a member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, anthropologist, scholar, educator, and Native rights activist. The collection also contains material collected by or given to Medicine to further her research and activism interests. Medicine, whose Lakota name was Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman," focused her research on a variety of topics affecting the Native American community: 1) mental health, 2) women's issues, 3) bilingual education, 4) alcohol and drug use, 5) ethno-methodologies and research needs of Native Americans, and 6) Children and identity issues. The collection represents Medicine's work as an educator for universities and colleges in the United States and in Canada, for which she taught Native American Studies courses. Additionally, because of the large amount of research material and Medicine's correspondence with elected U.S. officials and Native American leaders, and records from Medicine's involvement in Native American organizations, the collection serves to represent issues affecting Native Americans during the second half of the 20th century, and reflects what Native American leaders and organizations did to navigate and mitigate those issues. Collection materials include correspondence; committee, conference, and teaching material; ephemera; manuscripts and poetry; maps; notes; periodicals; photographs; training material; and transcripts.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
The papers of Beatrice Medicine reflect Medicine's interests as an academic and an activist, and contain correspondence, committee, conference, and teaching material, ephemera, manuscripts and poetry, maps, notes, periodicals, photographs, and training material (see series scope notes for further details on contents). The majority of the material is printed matter that Medicine collected, with less of her own work included. Taken together, the collection reflects issues affecting Native Americans during the second half of the 20th century, as well as the network of Native American leaders and organizations that navigated these issues. Student papers, letters of recommendation, evaluations, and documents containing personally identifiable information are restricted.

Arrangement
Arrangement
The collection is divided into 24 series:
  • Series 1: Native American Culture and History, 1954-1962, 1967-1975, 1978-1989, 1991-1997, 1999-2002
  • Series 2: Appropriations, Economics, and Labor, 1955, circa 1970-1980, 1988, 1993, circa 1995-2000
  • Series 3: Archaeology, 1935-1950, 1952-1973, 1987-1995
  • Series 4: Native American Artists, Authors, Crafts, Film, and Poets, 1951-1969, 1972-2002
  • Series 5: Census, Demographic, and Poll Data, 1974, 1984-1986
  • Series 6: Civil Rights, 1972, 1980, 1983-1997
  • Series 7: Committee Material: Correspondence, Meeting Minutes, and Memos, 1985-1995
  • Series 8: Conference Material, 1955-1962, 1965, 1968-1974, 1976-2002
  • Series 9: Correspondence, 1952, 1959, 1962, 1966-2000
  • Series 10: Education: Native American Institutions and Teaching Material, 1948-2002
  • Series 11: Ephemera: Campaign, Pow-Wow, and Other Event Buttons, and Calendars, 1973, 1976, circa 1980-2000
  • Series 12: Health: Alcohol and Drug Addiction and Recovery, Disabilities, Healthcare, Mental Health, Nutrition, and Wellness, 1955, 1965, 1969-1999, 2004
  • Series 13: Historic Preservation, 1942, 1956, 1960-1969, 1979, circa 1985-1998
  • Series 14: Invitations, 1966-1979, 1982, 1991-2002
  • Series 15: Linguistics: Native American Languages, 1961, 1963, 1975, 1978-1981, 1987-1995
  • Series 16: Manuscripts, 1964-2003
  • Series 17: Maps, 1982-1991
  • Series 18: Museum Material: Native American Museums, Exhibit Preparation, and the National Museum of the American Indian, 1949, 1962, circa 1976-1998
  • Series 19: Oversized Material, 1962, circa 1965-1996, 1999
  • Series 20: Published material: Journals, Magazines, Monographs, and Newsletters, 1914, 1932, 1944, 1946-1947, 1952-2003
  • Series 21: Reports, 1947-1949, 1956-1998
  • Series 22: Training Material, 1968, 1988-2000
  • Series 23: Women and Gender, 1962, 1965, circa 1970-1997
  • Series 24: Restricted Material, 1972, 1978, 1987-1999

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
A member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, Beatrice "Bea" Medicine—also known by her Lakota name Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman"—was born on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in Wakpala, South Dakota on August 1, 1923.
As a young adult, she studied at the South Dakota State University on the Laverne Noyes Scholarship, where she attained her B.A. in Anthropology in 1945. Between 1945 and 1951, Medicine worked a variety of teaching positions, including for three American Indian institutions (see Chronology for Medicine's complete work history). In 1951, Medicine went back to school and worked as a research assistant until she earned her master's degree in Sociology and Anthropology from Michigan State University in 1954. For the remainder of her life, Medicine served as faculty, visiting professor, and scholar-in-residence at thirty-one universities and colleges in the United States and Canada, teaching cultural and educational anthropology courses, as well as Native American Studies. As an educator, Medicine carried out her research on a variety of issues affecting Native American and First Nation communities, including: 1) mental health issues, 2) women's issues—professionalization, sterilization, socialization, and aging, 3) bilingual education, 4) alcohol and drug use and abuse, 5) ethno-methodologies and research needs, and 6) socialization of children and identity needs. Medicine's research in American Indian women's and children's issues, as well as her research in gender identity among the LGBT community was among the first to document the narratives of the members of these groups.
In 1974, Medicine testified alongside her cousin, Vine Deloria, Jr., as an expert witness in the Wounded Knee trial (United States v. Banks and Means). Following this, Medicine returned to school to pursue her Ph.D. in Cultural Anthropology, which she completed in 1983 at the University of Wisconsin. With her experience as a researcher, educator, activist, and Lakota woman, medicine sought to create more opportunities for multicultural and bilingual education for minority students, especially those of Native American descent. Such education, she believed, provided students a means to preserve and legitimize their own cultural identity, debase negative stereotyes, and be recognized as individuals who are capable of academic and economic achievement.
Medicine was an active member of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) and pursued her educational agenda further through the establishment of the Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions (CAPMI) (1987-1995), which brought anthropologists out of retirement to teach at minority institutions. (See Chronology for a complete list of organizations and committees in which Medicine was involved.) The program was short-lived but provided a space for minority students to confront a field that historically misrepresented them, reclaim their narratives and languages, and instigate positive change as potential future anthropologists.
Medicine officially retired on August 1, 1989, but continued to be active in AAA and was honored many times for her contributions to the field of anthropology. Some of her recognitions include the Distinguished Service Award from AAA (1991) and the Bronislaw Malinowski Award from the Society for Applied Anthropology (1996). One of Medicine's highest honors, however, was serving as the Sacred Pipe Woman at the 1977 Sun Dance. Medicine continued her research into retirement, and went on to publish her first book in 2001, Learning to Be an Anthropologist and Remaining "Native": Selected Writings. Medicine died in Bismarck, North Dakota on December 19, 2005. Medicine's final work, Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux was published posthumously in 2006. In honor of her life's work and dedication to education, the Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA) created the Bea Medicine Award, a scholarship travel grant for students to attend the Annual Meeting of the SfAA.
Chronology: Beatrice Medicine
1923 August 1
Beatrice Medicine (also known by her Lakota name, Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman") is born on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in Wakpala, South Dakota.
1941-1945
Receives scholarship: Laverne Noyes Scholarship, South Dakota State University
1945
Receives Bachelor of Arts, Anthropology, South Dakota State University.
1945-1946
Teacher, Home Economics, Haskell Indian Institute (B.I.A.)
1947-1948
Health Education Lecturer, Michigan Tuberculosis Association
1948-1949
Teacher, Santo Domingo Pueblo, United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, New Mexico
1949-1950
Teacher, Navajo Adult Beginner's Program, Albuquerque Indian School
1950-1951
Teacher, Home Economics, Flandreau Indian School
1950-1954
Fellowship: Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs Fellowships
1951-1954
Research Assistant, Sociology and Anthropology, Michigan State University
1953-1954
Fellowship: John Hay Whitney Foundation Fellowship
1954
Receives Master of Arts, Sociology and Anthropology, Michigan State University.
Fellowship: American Council of Learned Societies Fellowship
1954-
Charter Member, American Indian Women's Service League
1955-1958
Teaching and Research Assistant, University of Washington
1956
Honor: Outstanding Alumna, South Dakota State University
1960
Mentioned as "Who's Who Among American Indians"
circa 1960
Alpha Kappa Delta, Sociology Hononary
Phi Upsilon Omicron, Home Economic Honorary
1960-1963
Lecturer, Anthropology, University of British Columbia
1960-1964
Board of Directors, Native Urban Indian Centers in Vancouver, British Columbia and Calgary, Alberta
1963-1964
Lecturer/Sociology and Teacher/Counselor, Mount Royal College, Indian Affairs Branch
Receives grant: American Council of Learned Societies Research Grant
1965
Lecturer, Social Science, Michigan State University
1966
Psychiatric Social Worker, Provincial Guidance Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
1966-1967
Receives grant: Career Development Grant, National Institute of Mental Health
1966-
Member, National Congress of American Indians (Education Issues)
1967
Receives grant: Ethnological Research Grant, National Museum of Canada
1967-1968
Lecturer, Sociology and Anthropology, University of Montana
1968
Teacher, "Cultural Enrichment Program," Standing Rock Indian Reservation, South Dakota
Cited in "The Role of Racial Minorities in the United States," Seattle, Washington
1968 March
Speaker: "The Pow-Wow as a Social Factor in the Northern Plains Ceremonialism," Montana Academy of Sciences
1968 May
Speaker: "Patterns and Periphery of Plains Indian Pow-Wows," Central States Anthropological Society
1968 June
Speaker: "Magic Among the Stoney Indians," Canadian Sociology and Anthropological Association, Calgary, Alberta
1968 August
Speaker: "Magic Among the Stoney Indians," International Congress of Americanists, Stuttgart, German
Speaker: "The Dynamics of a Dakota Indian Giveaway," International Congress of Americanists, Stuttgart, German
1968-1969
Director, American Indian Research, Oral History Project and Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of South Dakota
1968-1970
Consultant, Text Book Evaluation Committee, American Indians United
1969
Assistant Professor, Teacher Corps, University of Nebraska
1969 September
Speaker: "The Red Man Yesterday," Governor's Interstate Indian Council, Wichita, Kansas
1969 December
Speaker: "The Native American in Modern Society," Northwestern State College
1969-1970
Assistant Professor, San Francisco State University
Speaker: "The Indian in Institutions of Higher Learning," Annual Conference, National Indian Education Association
1969-1975
Member, Editorial Board, American Indian Historical Society
1970
Mentioned for second time as "Who's Who Among American Indians"
Steering Committee Member, Indian Ecumenical Convocation of North America
Member, Planning Committee Indian Alcoholism and Drug Use
1970 August
Speaker: "The Role of the White Indian Expert," 2nd Annual Conference, National Indian Education Association
1970 October
Speaker: "The Ethnographic Study of Indian Women," Annual Convention, American Ethnohistorical Soceity
1970 November
Speaker: "The Anthropologists as the Indian's Image Maker," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association
Speaker: "The Anthropologist and Ethnic Studies Programs," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association
1970-1971
Associate Professor, Anthropology, San Francisco State University
Member, Mayor's Committee on the Status of Women, San Francisco, California
1971
Member, Native American Scholars Board, Steering and Selection, American Indian Historical Society
1971 May
Speaker: "Ethnic Studies and Native Americans," National Education Association
1971-1973
Pre-Doctoral Lecturer, Anthropology, University of Washington
Consultant, American Indian Heritage Program
1972
Honored in "Potlatch" ceremony by Makah Tribal people at the National Indian Education Conference for contributions to Indian education
Receives grant: American Council of Learned Societies Travel Grant, Americanist Annual Meeting, Rome, Italy
Curriculum Advisor, Lakota Higher Education Center, Prine Ridge, South Dakota
1972 March
Speaker: "Warrior Women Societies," Northwest Anthropological Conference
1972 April
Chairperson and Speaker: "Racism and Ethnic Relations," Society for Applied Anthropology
1972 June
Chairperson, Native American Studies Symposium, International Congress of Americanists, Mexico
1972 August
Speaker: "Warrior Women of the Plains," International Congress of Americanists, Rome, Italy
1972 November
Speaker: "Native Americans in the Modern World," Southwest Minnesota State College
1973
Expert Witness, Yvonne Wanro Trial, Spokane, Washington
Member, Organization of American States, First Congress of Indigenous Women, Chiapas, Mexico
Speaker: "Self-Direction in Sioux Education," American Anthropological Association
Speaker: "North American Native Women: The Aspirations and Their Associations," presented as a Delegate to the Inter-American Commission on Indigenous Women, Chiapas, Mexico
1973-1974
Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Native American Studies Program, Dartmouth College
1973-1976
Member, Committee on Minorities in Anthropology, American Anthropological Association
1973-
Consultant, Human Services Department, Sinte Gleska Community College
1974
Expert Witness, Wounded Knee Trial, Lincoln, Nebraska
Speaker: "Indian Women's Roles: Traditional and Contemporary," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association
1974-1975
Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Colorado College
1975-1976
Visiting Associate Professor, Anthropology, Stanford University
1975-1977
Member, Steering Committee, Council of Anthropology and Education, American Anthropological Association
1976
Visiting Professor, Educational Anthropology, University of New Brunswick
Expert Witness, Topsky Eagle Feathers Trial, Pocatello, Idaho
Panelist, White House Conference on Ethnic Studies, Washington, D.C.
1977
Expert Witness, Greybull Grandchildren Custody Case, Portland, Oregon
American Indian representative to the World Conference on Indigenous People, Geneva, Switzerland
Honor: Outstanding Alumna, South Dakota State University
1977 August 18
Medicine serves as Sacred Pipe Woman at the Sun Dance, Green Grass, South Dakota
1977-1980
Education Consultant, National Congress of American Indians, Washington, D.C.
1978
Cited in the Directory of Significant 20th Century American Minority Women, Gaylord Professional Publications
Biographical Sketch in "Moving Forward" of the Bookmark Reading Program, Third Edition
1978 August
Speaker: "Issues in the Professionalization of Native American Women," Annual Meeting, American Psychological Association
1978-1982
Advanced Opportunity Fellow, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison
1979
Visiting Professor, Department of Education Policy Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison
1979 August
Honorary Doctorate of Human Letters, Northern Michigan University
Speaker: "The Dakota Indian Memorial Feast: Reservation and Urban Manifestations," International Congress of Americanists, Lima, Peru
1980
Member, Nominations Committee, American Anthropological Association
Biographical Sketch in "Native American Indian Personalities, Historical and Contemporary," Dansville, New York: The Instructor Publications, Inc.
1981
Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Public Affairs, University of Washington-Seattle
Speaker: "Linguistically Marginated: The Transformation of Dominated Speech Varieties," American Anthropological Association
1982
School of Social and Behavioral Science Academic Planning, California State University
Speaker: "Policy Decisions: Federal Regulations and American Indian Identity Issues," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association
1982-1983
Anthropology Department Curriculum Committee, California State University
1982-1985
Associate Professor of Anthropology, Coordinator, Interdisciplinary Program in American Indian Studies, California State University
Coordinator, Interdisciplinary Program in American Studies Program, California State University
1982-
President, Assembly of California Indian Women
1983
Receives Ph.D., Cultural Anthropology, University of Wisconsin
Expert Witness, Fortunate Eagle Trial, Reno, Nevada
Award: Outstanding Woman of Color, National Institute of Women of Color, Washingtonton, D.C. (for anthropological contributions)
Award: Outstanding Minority Researcher, American Educational Research Association
Publishes book with Patricia Albers: The Hidden Half: Indian Women of the Northern Plains
Honor: Significant Academic Book (The Hidden Half), Choice, Association of Colleges and Research Libraries, American Library Association
1983-1984
Student Affirmative Action Coordinating Council, California State University
1983-1986
Member, Executive Board, Southwest Anthropological Association
Member, Governing Board, Common Cause
1984
Member, Advisory Board of National Research for Handicapped Native Americans, North Arizona University
Scholarly Publications Award Selection Committee, California State University
Award: Faculty Award for Meritorious Service, California State University
Speaker: Field Work Methods: "Ties That Bond," Committee on the Status of Women in Anthropology," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association
Speaker: "Career Patterns of American Indian Women," Council of Education and Anthropology, Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association
1984 November
Faculty Award for Meritorious Service, California State University
1984-1985
Participant, Chancellor's Office Grant to "Cross-Cultural Perspectives in the Social Sciences," California State University
1985 November
Speaker: Conference on "The Native American: His Arts, His Culture, and His History," West Virginia State College
1985-1986
Board of Directors, Naechi Institute on Alcohol and Drug Education
1985-1988
Professor, Department of Anthropology and Director, Native Centre, University of Calgary
1985-1989
Member, Malinowski Awards Committee, Society for Applied Anthropology
1987
Honor: Outstanding Minority Professorship Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks Visiting Professor, University of Michigan
1987-1995
Member, Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions, American Anthropological Association
1988 August 1
Medicine officially retires.
1989
Volunteer (Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions, American Anthropological Association), Standing Rock College
Honor (twice): Outstanding Minority Professorship Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks Visiting Professor, Wayne State University.
1990
Honor: "Outstanding Contributions for the promotion of sex equity in Education," Illinois State Board of Education
Honor: Outstanding Lakota Woman, Standing Rock College
1991
Honor: Distinguished Service Award, American Anthropological Association. Medicine was the first American Indian to receive this award.
1991
Visiting Professor, Saskatchewan Indian Federal College
Visiting Professor, Colorado College
Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Humboldt State University
1992
Visiting Distinguished Professor, Women's Studies, University of Toronto
1993
Visiting Professor, Rural Sociology, South Dakota State University
Award: Distinguished Native American Alumna Award, South Dakota State University
1993-1994 December
Research Co-ordinator, Women's Perspectives, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples
1994-
Adjunct Professor, University of Alberta
1995
Scholar in Residence, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul
Visiting Scholar, Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia
Award: Ohana Award, Multi-Cultural Counseling Excellence, American Association of Counselors
1996
Award: Bronislaw Malinowski Award, Society for Applied Anthropology.
Buckman Professor, Department of Human Ecology, University of Minnesota
circa 1997-
Associate Professor of Anthropology Emeritus, Department of Anthropology, California State University
2001
Publishes book: Learning to Be an Anthropologist and Remaining "Native": Selected Writings.
2005
Award: George and Louise Spindler Award, Council on Anthropology and Education, American Anthropological Association.
2005 December 19
Medicine dies during emergency surgery in Bismarck, North Dakota.
2006
Book: Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux is published posthumously.
2008
The Society for Applied Anthropology creates the Bea Medicine Award.

Administration
Processing Information
Medicine's file organization has been maintained, as have her folder titles. Processed and encoded by Katrina Schroeder, April-August 2019. Funding for processing was provided by the Smithsonian Women's Committee.
Author
Finding aid prepared by Katrina Schroeder.
Sponsor
Funding for the processing of this collection was provided by the Smithsonian Women's Committee.
Immediate Source of Acquisition
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Beatrice Medicine between 1997 and 2003, and by Ted Garner in 2006.

Bibliography
Bibliography
The following are notable books, articles, poems, and documentaries by Dr. Beatrice Medicine:
1950. "Changing Foods and Food Habits." In El Palacio, Vol. 57, No. 10, pp. 324-331.
1968. "The Use of Magic Among the Stoney Indians." In XXXVIII Internationalen Amerikanistenkongresses, pp. 283-292.
1969. "The Changing Dakota Family and the Stresses Therein." In Pine Ridge Research Bulletin, No. 9, pp. 13-23.
1970. "Red Power, Real or Potential." In Indian Voices: The First Convocation of American Indian Scholars, pp. 299-307. San Francisco: Indian Historian Press.
1971. "The Anthropologist and American Indian Studies Programs." In Indian Historian, No. 4, pp. 15-18.
1971. "Anthropology as the Indian's Image Maker." In Indian Historian, Vol. 4, No.3, pp. 27-29.
1973. "The Big Foot Trail to Wounded Knee." In Indian Historian, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 23-25.
1973. "Finders Keepers." In Museum News, No. 51, pp. 20-26.
1973. "The Native American." In Don Speigel and Patricia Keith-Speigel eds. The Outsiders. New York: Reinhart and Winston Holt.
1974. "Religion and Philosophy." In Encyclopedia of the Americas, 166-178. Scholarly Press, Inc.
1975. "American Indian Movement." In The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago.
1975. "Ely S. Parker." In The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago.
1975. "Gall." In The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago.
1975. "The Role of Women in Native American Societies: A Bibliography." In Indian Historian, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 50-54.
1975. "Self-Direction in Sioux Education." In Integrateducation, No. 78, pp. 15-17.
1975. "Sioux Indians." In The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago.
1975. "Sitting Bull." In The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago.
1975. "Spotted Tail." In The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago.
1976. "Development of Models and Levels of Interpretation in Mental Health." In Anthropology and Mental Health. Edited by Joseph Westermeyer. The Hauge, the Netherlands: Mouton Publishers.
1976. "Oral History as Truth: Validity in recent Court Cases Involving Native Americans." In Folklore Forum, Bibliographic and Special Series, Vol. 9, No. 15, pp. 1-5.
1976. "The Schooling Process: Some Lakota (Sioux) Views." In Craig J. Calhoun and Francis A. Janni eds. The Anthropological Study of Education. The Hague: Mouton.
1977. "NIEA, NCAI, NIYC Revisited." In Wassaja (December).
1978. "Higher Education: A Threshold for Native Americans." In Thresholds in Education, No. 4, pp. 22-25.
1978. "Kunshiki: Grandmothers." In Plainswomen, 1.10-11, pp. 11-12. Grand Forks, ND.
1978. "Learning to Be an Anthropologist and Remaining Native." In Applied Anthropology in America: Past Contributions and Future Directions, pp. 182-196. Edited by Elizabeth Eddy and William Partridge. New York: Columbia Press.
1978. "Native American Women: A Perspective." Austin, Texas: National Educational Laboratory Publishers, Inc.
1978. "We Talk of Mental Health." In Newsletter of the National Center for American Indian and Alaskan Native Health, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 5.
1979. "Bilingual Education and Public Policy: The Case of the American Indians." In Bilingual Education and Public Policy in the United States, pp. 395-407. Edited by Raymond Padilla. Ypsilanti, Michigan: Eastern Michigan University.
1979. "Hanta Yo: A New Phenomenon." In The Indian Historian, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 2-5. Reprinted in Kainai News, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 2.
1979. "Native Americans Communication Patterns: The Case of the Lakota Speakers." In Handbook of Transcultural Communication, pp. 378-381. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
1980. "Ella Cara Deloria, the Emic Voice." In Melus (Multi-Ethnic Literature in the U.S.), Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 23-30.
1980. "American Indian Women: Mental Health Issues which Relate to Drug Abuse." In Wícazo Ša Review: a Journal of Native American Studies, No. 9, pp. 85-89.
1980. "American Indian Women: Spirituality and Status." In Bread and Roses, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 15-18. Madison, WI.
1980. "Ella C. Delora: The Emic Voice." In The Journal of the Society for the Study of Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States, Vol. 7, No. 4 (Winter), pp. 23-30.
1980. "The Interaction of Culture and Sex Roles in the Schools." In Proceedings of the Conference of the Educational and Occupational Needs of American Indian Women, pp. 141-158. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education.
1980. "Searching for the Bishop." In Plainswomen, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 9-19. Grand Forks, ND.
1980. "Star Quilts." With Patricia Albers. In Native Arts/West, pp. 9-15. Santa Fe, NM.
1980. "Training of American Indians and Alaskan Natives in Mental Health." With Spero Manson and Wally Funmaker. In Practical Anthropology, Vol. 2, No. 1: 4-5, pp. 22-24.
1981. "American Indian Family Cultural Change and Adaptive Strategies." In Journal of Ethnic Studies, No. 8, pp. 13-23.
1981. "Contemporary Literature on Indian Women: A Review Essay." In Frontiers: A Journal of Women's Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 122-125. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado.
1981. "The Interaction of Culture and Sex Roles in Schools." In Integrateducation, Special Issue: American Indian Education, No. 19, pp. 28-37.
1981. "Native American Resistance to Integration: Contemporary Confrontations and Religious Revitalization." In Plains Anthropologist, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 277-86.
1981. "'Speaking Indian': Parameters of Language Use among American Indians." In Focus: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, No. 6, pp. 3-10.
1981. "Wakan: Thoughts on Sacredness." In Anthropology Resource Center Newsletter, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 7.
1982. "New Roads to Coping: Siouan Sobriety." In S.M. Manson ed. New Directions in Prevention among American Indian and Alaska Native Communities. Portland: Oregon Health Sciences University.
1983. "An Ethnography of Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux." University of Nebraska Press.
1983. "The Hidden Half: Indian Women of the Northern Plains." With Patricia Albers. Washington, D.C.: American Universities Press.
1983. "Ina." In Sinister Wisdom, 22/23. Amherst, MA. Reprinted in A Gathering of Spirit, 1984.
1983. "Indian Women: Tribal Identity as Status Quo." In Women's Nature: Rationalizations of Inequality. New York: Teachers College Press.
1983. "Warrior Women." In The Hidden Half: Studies of Plains Indian Women. Patricia C. Alberts, ed. ISBN 9780819129567.
1984. "American Indian Concepts of Mental Health Reflections and Directions." With Joseph Trimble, Manson, and Dinges. In Mental Health Services: The Cross-Cultural Context, pp. 199-220. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
1986. "Beyond Compare and Contrast... Perspectives from Anthropology." In Unmasking culture: Cross Cultural Perspectives in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, pp. 107-118. Chandler and Sharp.
1986. "Contemporary Cultural Revisitation: Bilingual and Bicultural Education." In Wícazo Ša Review: a Journal of Native American Studies, No. 2, pp. 31-35.
1987. "The Cultural Background of American Indian Art." In New Directions Northwest, pp. 1-10. Portland, OR: The Art Museum and Evergreen State College.
1987. "Indian Women and the Renaissance of Traditional Religion." In Raymond J. DeMallie and Douglas R. Parks eds. pp.159-171. Sioux Indian Religion, Tradition and Innovation. Norman and London: University of Oklahoma Press.
1987. "The Role of American Indian Women in Cultural Continuity and Transition." In J. Penfield ed. Women and Language in Transition. Albany: SUNY Press.
1987. "The Role of Elders in Native Education." In Indian Education in Canada, Vol. II: The Challenge, pp. 152. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
1987. "Understanding the Native Community." In Multicultural Education Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 21-26. Edmonton: Alberta Teachers Association.
1988. "Ella Cara Deloria." In Ute Gacs, Aisha Khan, Jerry McIntyre and Ruth Weinberg eds. pp. 45-50. Women Anthropologists: a Biographical Dictionary. New York: Greenwood Press.
1988. "Native American (Indian) Women: A Call for Research." In Anthropology and Education Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 86-92.
1989. "Indian Identity Within Communities and Externally Imposed Policies." In Ethnicity, pp. 119-130. Moscow, Russia: Institute of Ethnography Publications.
1990. "'Carrying the Culture: American Indian and Alaska Native Women Workers' Wider Opportunity for Women Inc." In Risks and Challenges: Women, Work and the Future, pp. 53-60.
1993. "American Indian Women: Mental Health Issues Which Relate to Drug Abuse." In Wicazosa Review, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 85-90.
1993. "Diversification of American Indians: Forming An Indigenous Perspective." With Joseph E. Trimble. In Indigenous Psychologies: Research and Experience in Cultural Context, pp. 133-151. New Park, CA: Sage Publications.
1993. "North American Indigenous Women and Cultural Domination." In American Indian Culture and Research Journal, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp.121-30.
1997. "Changing Native American Roles in an Urban Context and Changing Native American Sex Roles in an Urban Context." In Sue-Ellen Jacobs, Wesley Thomas and Sabine Lang eds. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
1997. "Lakota Star Quilts: Commodity, Ceremony and Economic Development." In Marsha L. MacDowell and C. Kurt Dedwhurst eds. To Honor and Comfort: Native American Quilting Traditions. Museum of New Mexico Press and Michigan State University Museum.
1998. "Alcohol and Aborigines: the North American Perspective." In Alcoholic Beverage Medical Research Journal, No. 8, pp. 7-11.
1998. "American Indians and Anthropologists: Issues of History, Empowerment, and Application." In Human Organization, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 253-57.
1999. "Ella Cara Deloria: Early Lakota Ethnologist (Newly Discovered Novelist)." In R. Darnell and L. Valentine eds. The Americanist Tradition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
1999. Seeking the Spirit: Plains Indians in Russia. Liucija Baskauskas, dir. Documentary Educational Resources.
2001. Learning to be an Anthropologist and Remaining "Native": Selected Writings. Edited with Sue-Ellen Jacobs. University of Illinois Press: Urbana and Chicago.
2006. Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux. Altamira Press: New York.

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Use
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Conditions Governing Access
Materials relating to student grades, letters of recommendation, and evaluations have been restricted.
Preferred Citation
Beatrice Medicine papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Custodial History
Custodial History
The Beatrice Medicine papers consist of papers created and collected by Dr. Beatrice Medicine over the course of her life (1923-2005).

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux) Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Alcohol Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Native American Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
American Indian -- Education Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Gender imagery Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Discrimination Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Linguistics -- Research -- United States Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Lakota Indians Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Correspondence Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Standing Rock Sioux Tribe of North & South Dakota Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland 20746
naa@si.edu
http://www.anthropology.si.edu/naa/