Frank Spencer papers, 1836-1999, bulk 1970-1999

Summary
Collection ID:
NAA.2002-21
Creators:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984
Dates:
1836-1999
bulk 1970-1999
Languages:
Multiple languages
Collection primarily in English. Some materials in Czech, French, German, and Spanish, and a few materials in Greek (both modern and Attic), Italian, Japanese, and Latin.
Physical Description:
40 Linear feet
94 boxes, 1 oversized box
Repository:
Frank Spencer was a historian of biological anthropology who began his career as a medical laboratory technician. His papers include correspondence, manuscripts, notes, research files, teaching materials, photographs, and audiotapes. Spencer's research on the Piltdown hoax as well as the Piltdown research of Ian Langham, whose work Spencer continued after his death in 1984, and Spencer's research on the life and career of Aleš Hrdlička for his dissertation are both represented in the collection.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
This collection documents the research and professional activities of anthropologist Frank Spencer through his correspondence, manuscripts, notes, research files, teaching materials, photographs, and audiotapes. As a historian of physical anthropology, Spencer did a great deal of archival research. Well-represented in the collection is Spencer's research on the Piltdown hoax as well as the Piltdown research of Ian Langham, whose work Spencer continued after Langham's death in 1984. Among the materials collected are negatives of Piltdown-related papers and negatives of Sir Arthur Keith's papers held at the Royal College of Surgeons. Spencer, who theorized that Keith was behind the Piltdown hoax, had organized his papers with a grant from Wenner-Gren. Also represented in the collection is Spencer's research on the life and career of Aleš Hrdlička for his dissertation. Although most of Hrdlička's papers and photos that Spencer collected are copies of materials held at the National Anthropological Archives (NAA), the collection does contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; and copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece. The collection also contains an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute. Spencer's 1975 taped interviews with Henry Collins, Harry Shapiro, Ashley Montagu, and Lucille St. Hoyme can also be found in the collection. Other projects represented in the collection include
A History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia
,
The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence
, and Fallen Idols, Spencer's unpublished book on the history of scientific attitudes towards human origins. In addition, the collection contains copies of
Physical Anthropology News
, which Spencer co-founded and edited. Photos in the collection include images of Frank Spencer as well as of the 1981 and 1988 annual meetings of the Association of American Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) and the 1980 symposium Spencer and Noel T. Boaz organized on the history of American physical anthropology.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.

Arrangement
Arrangement
This collection is arranged in 15 series: (1) Correspondence, 1864, 1910, 1920, 1972-1999 (bulk 1972-1999); (2) Piltdown, 1836-1997; (3) Ales Hrdlicka, 1866-1867, 1893-1942, 1971-1981, 1994-1999; (4) Encyclopedia, 1881-1891, 1911-1999 (bulk 1991-1998); (5) Projects, 1858-1884, 1897-1909, 1919-1929, 1939-1999 (bulk 1982-1995); (6) Human Antiquity Research, 1960-1980, 1991-1998; (7) Subject Files, 1863-1999 (bulk 1970-1998); (8) Coded Files, 1836-1983 (bulk 1970-1983); (9) University Material, 1959, 1973-1998; (10) Personal Papers, 1966-1975, 1985-1994; (11) Notebooks, 1976-1999; (12) Card Files, undated; (13) Photographs, 1885-1990 (bulk 1980-1990); (14) Audiotapes, 1942, 1961, 1975-1976, 1998 (bulk 1975); (15) Realia, undated

Biographical Note
Biographical Note
Frank Spencer was born in Chatham, England, on May 1, 1941. Best known as a historian of biological anthropology and for his book
Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery
(1990), Spencer began his career as a medical laboratory technician, publishing two books on medical laboratory procedures in 1970 and 1972. He immigrated to Canada, where he earned his BA in anthropology at the University of Windsor in Ontario in 1973. The following year, he enrolled at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, with C. Loring Brace as his advisor. Spencer wrote his dissertation on the life and career of Aleš Hrdlička and was awarded his PhD in biological anthropology in 1979. That same year he joined the faculty of the Department of Anthropology at Queens College as an assistant professor and was soon promoted to department chair in 1984. Over the course of his career, he wrote and edited several books on the history of physical anthropology including
A History of Physical Anthropology, 1930-1980
(1992),
The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence
(1984),
Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology
(1986), and
History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia
(1997). Spencer was also a co-founder and editor of the
Physical Anthropology News
bulletins. It was his book
Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery
, however, that garnered him the most attention. In this book, he theorized that the well-respected Sir Arthur Keith master-minded the Piltdown hoax. On May 30, 1999 Frank Spencer died of cancer at the age of 58.
1941
Born on May 1 in Chatham, Kent, England
1964
Obtained Associate diploma in Clinical Microbiology, [Britain], Institute of Medical Laboratory Sciences
1966
Fellowship diploma in Clinical Parasitology
1971
Advanced diploma in Clinical Biochemistry & Microbiology, Canadian Society of Medical Laboratory Technology
1973
BA (Anthropology) University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada
1974
MA (Biological Anthropology) University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
1976-1977
Adjunct Lecturer, Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Windsor
1979
PhD, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, "Biological Anthropology, Aleš Hrdlička, MD (1869-1943): A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist"
1979-1982
Hired as Assistant Professor, Dept. of Anthropology, Queens College
1982
Published
A History of American Physical Anthropology, 1930-1980
1983
Associate Professor, Dept. of Anthropology, Queens College
1984
Published
The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence
1986
Full professor, Dept. of Anthropology, Queens College
Published
Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology
1990
Published
Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery
Published
The Piltdown Papers 1908-1955: The Correspondence and Other Documents Relating to the Forgery
1997
Published
The History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia
1999
Passed away on May 30 of cancer

Administration
Processing Information
The Frank Spencer Papers were partially processed in 2003 by one processor and completed in 2004 by another processor. In 2006, parts of the collection were reorganized. Publications not written or annotated by Spencer and not inscribed by the author were removed from the collection.
Processed by M. Iverson and N. Mueller, 2003-2004
Encoded by NAA staff
Author
M. Iverson and N. Mueller
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Donated in 2002 by Elena Peters-Spencer, wife of Frank Spencer.

Selected Bibliography
Selected Bibliography
1979. "Biological Anthropology, Aleš Hrdlička, MD (1869-1943): A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist." PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1979.
1982. ed.
A History of American Physical Anthropology, 1930-1980
. New York: Academic Press, 1982.
1984. ed. with Fred H. Smith.
The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence
. New York: A.R. Liss, 1984.
1986.
Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology
. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.
1990.
Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery
. London: Oxford University Press, 1990.
1990.
The Piltdown Papers 1908-1955: The Correspondence and Other Documents Relating to the Forgery
. London: Oxford University Press, 1990.
1997. ed.
The History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia
. New York: Garland, 1997.

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Use
Contact repository for terms of use.
Conditions Governing Access
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.
Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Preferred Citation
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

Related Materials
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Physical anthropology -- History Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Physical anthropology -- frauds Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Crohn's disease Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Piltdown (England) -- early man site Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Piltdown forgery Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
anthropometry Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Language and languages -- Documentation Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Dawson, Charles, 1864-1916 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Keith, Arthur, Sir, 1866-1955 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland 20746
naa@si.edu
http://www.anthropology.si.edu/naa/