Guide to the Lawrence Oschinsky Papers

Summary
Collection ID:
NAA.2016-26
Creators:
Oschinsky, Lawrence, 1921-1965
Dates:
circa 1900-1965
Languages:
Multiple languages
Records exist in
English
,
French
,
German
, and
Spanish
.
Physical Description:
18 Linear feet
Repository:
The papers of Lawrence Oschinsky primarily document his research and professional activities from 1940s-1965 as an American physical anthropologist, but include some personal materials as well. The collection contains his published works, dissertations, field notes, correspondence, teaching materials, and many photographs depicting both his personal travels and his research subjects in the Canadian Arctic, Africa, Asia, and other regions.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
The papers of Lawrence Oschinsky primarily document his professional life and research on the racial affinities and evolutionary characteristics of various peoples. The collection contains his published works, dissertations, field notes, correspondence, teaching materials, and many photographs depicting both his personal travels and his research subjects in the Canadian Arctic, Africa, Asia, and other regions.

Arrangement
Arrangement
The Lawrence Oschinsky papers are organized into 9 series:
  • Series 1: Personal Information and Effects
  • Series 2: Correspondence
  • Series 3: Education
  • Series 4: Research and Notes
  • Series 5: Published Works
  • Series 6: Writings
  • Series 7: Teaching Materials
  • Series 8: Photographs
  • Series 9: Motion picture film

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
Lawrence Oschinsky was born on April 19, 1921, to Lea Pollak Oschinsky and John Oschinsky in New York City. He received his B.A. degree from Brooklyn College in 1943, where he was first drawn to anthropology. In 1947 he received his master's degree in Anthropology from the University of Chicago, with the thesis entitled "Islam in Chicago: Being a Study of the Acculturation of a Muslim Palestinian Community in That City." He attended the University of Zurich from 1947-1950 pursuing graduate coursework in anthropology.
From 1950-1951 he was instructor of anatomy at Makerere College Medical School, in Kampala Uganda, studying the racial affinities of various African tribes. From 1951-1952 he was a Research Student at the University of Cambridge, England. He returned to the University of Zurich in 1952 and received his PhD in Anthropology. His doctoral dissertation, published in 1953, was entitled "The Racial Affinities of the Baganda and Other Bantu Tribes of British East Africa." In October 1953, Oschinsky returned to the United States and began his teaching and research career as an Instructor in Physical Anthropology at the Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. He also acted as research assistant to Dr. Wilton M. Krogman, Professor of Physical Anthropology, and took anthropometric measurements of school children for Krogman's child growth research program.
Concurrently, Oschinsky cooperated with police and other agencies in the forensic identification of unknown human remains and cases of disputed paternity. Toward the end of 1953, he obtained a position as a Research Scholar in Physical Anthropology at the United States Educational Foundation in Burma. He spent a year studying the peoples of Burma in relation to those of Thailand, Indonesia, Malaya, and the Philippines. From 1956-1957, he was an Instructor in Anatomy at Howard University Medical School in Washington, DC. During 1957-1958, he was Visiting Lecturer in Physical Anthropology at the University of Arizona, Tucson. In 1958, Oschinsky was offered the position of Curator of Physical Anthropology at the National Museum of Canada, in Ottawa, where he devoted himself to an intensive study of the museum's osteological collections. In 1962 he became a part-time instructor in Physical Anthropology at St. Patrick's College, University of Ottawa. In July 1963, Oschinsky became Assistant Professor, and later Associate Professor of Physical Anthropology, University of Toronto, where he taught until his death on December 19, 1965.
Oschinsky wrote several scientific papers during these years, culminating in 1964 with the monograph The Most Ancient Eskimos: The Eskimo Affinities of Dorset Culture Skeletal Remains.. In this book, Oschinsky explored Eskimo prehistory via skeletal specimens.
Chronology
1921 April 19
Born in New York City, NY
1939-1943
Bachelor of Arts, Brooklyn College
1943-1947
Masters in Anthropology, University of Chicago
1947-1950
Graduate Coursework in Anthropology, University of Zurich
1950-1951
Anatomy instructor; studied racial affinities of African tribes, Makerere College Medical School, Uganda
1951-1952
Research student, University of Cambridge, England
1952-53
PhD in Physical Anthropology, University of Zurich
1953
Worked with police and other agencies in the forensic identification of unknown human remains and cases of disputed paternity
1953-1954
Instructor, Physical Anthropology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Research assistant to Dr. Wilton M. Krogman; took anthropometric measurements of schoolchildren for Krogman's child growth research program.
1954-1955
Research scholar in Physical Anthropology, United States Educational Foundation, Burma (currently Myanmar)
1956-1957
Instructor in Anatomy, Howard University Medical School, Washington, D.C.
1957-1958
Visiting Lecturer in Physical Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson
1958-1963
Curator of Physical Anthropology, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa
1962
Part-time instructor in Physical Anthropology, St. Patrick's College, University of Ottawa
1963-1965
Assistant Professor of Physical Anthropology, University of Toronto
1964
Published monograph, The Most Ancient Eskimos: The Eskimo Affinities of Dorset Culture Skeletal Remains
1965 December 19
Died in Toronto, Ontario

Administration
Processing Information
Processed and encoded by Victoria Dale, 2019.
Separated Materials
Oschinsky's measuring instruments and a number of dental casts were transferred to the biological anthropology collections of the National Museum of Natural History.
Author
Victoria Dale
Immediate Source of Acquisition
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Lawrence Oschinsky's nephew, Scott Fuller, in 2016.

Selected Bibliography
Selected Bibliography
1954. The Racial Affinities of the Baganda and Other Bantu Tribes of British East Africa. Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons Limited.
1959. "A Reappraisal of Recent Serological, Genetic and Morphological Research on the Taxonomy of the Races of Africa and Asia." Anthropologica, New Series, Vol. I (1).
1960. With Roy Smithurst. "On Certain Dental Characters of the Eskimo of the Eastern Canadian Arctic." Anthropologica, New Series, Vol. II, (1).
1960. "Two Recently Discovered Human Mandibles from Cape Dorset Sites on Sugluk and Mansel Islands." Anthropologica, New Series, Vol. II, (2), pp. 212-227.
1960. With Roy Smithurst. "A Preliminary Report on the Odontology and Occlusion of the Eskimos of the Eastern Canadian Arctic." Extrait des Actes du VI Congres International des Sciences Anthropologiques et Ethnologiques, Paris. Tome 1.
1961. "A Short Note on Upper Lateral Incisor Tooth Crowding Among the Eskimos." Anthropologica, New Series, Vol. III (1).
1962. "Facial Flatness and Cheekbone Morphology in Arctic Mongoloids: A Case for Morphological Taxonomy." Anthropologica, New Series, Vol. IV. (2).
1963. Critique of The Origin of Races by Carleton S. Coon. Anthropologica, New Series, Vol. V, (1).
1963. With Wann Langston. "Notes on Taber 'Early Man' Site." Anthropologica. New Series, Vol. V, (2).
1963. "The Problem of Parallelism in Relation to the Subspecific Taxonomy of Homo Sapiens." Anthropologica, New Series, Vol. V, (2).
1964. The Most Ancient Eskimos: The Eskimo Affinities of Dorset Culture Skeletal Remains. Illustrated by A. E. Ingram, The Canadian Research Centre for Anthropology, University of Ottawa.
1964. With P. Gall, J. MacDonald, L. Niemann, M. Spence, and S. Wilson. "Parallelism, Homology and Homoplasy in Relation to Hominid Taxonomy and the Origin of Homo Sapiens." Anthropologica, New Series, Vol. VI, (1).

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Use
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Conditions Governing Access
The collection is open for research. Access to the Lawrence Oschinsky papers requires an appointment.
Preferred Citation
Lawrence Oschinsky papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Related Materials
The National Anthropological archives holds the records of the Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Manuscripts Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Physical anthropology Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
anthropometry Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Physical anthropology -- skeletal remains Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Physical anthropology -- Eskimo Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Physical anthropology -- Early man Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland 20746
naa@si.edu
http://www.anthropology.si.edu/naa/