Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development (originally known as the Philadelphia center for Research in child Growth) was founded by anthropologist Wilton M. Krogman in 1947. The Center was located in the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP).
Its objective was to establish growth standards for "normal," healthy children, as determined by age, sex, and race. Longitudinal research for this study began in approximately 1947. The study involved approximately 9,000 initial participants (7,200 of which were followed up on), who were observed annually for physical growth, psychological performance, faciodental development with cleft lip and/or palate, facial growth in regards to tooth development, and any existing endocrine disorders and orthopedic concerns.
Additionally, the Center led the Philadelphia portion of the 11-city Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) (1959-1974), which remains the largest and longest U.S.-based study of pregnancy and childhood ever conducted. In all, the research of the Center compromises the largest longitudinal study ever conducted on growth in the U.S. and the largest in the world on people of African descent, and produced hundreds of publications between 1959 and 2011. Many of the original participants contributed to later phases of the project as adults for decades thereafter, making a significant contribution to the study of aging. The results of Krogman's initial research helped establish physical growth standards for elementary and high school age children.
Chronology: Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development
Founded by Wilton M. Krogman (originally named the Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth)
Longitudinal Research, Child Growth: Physical Growth, Faciodental Development, Dental Program
Longitudinal Research, National Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), Philadelphia
Krogman publishes growth study findings through the Society for Research in Child Development
Dr. Solomon H. Katz becomes new Center Director
Krogman republishes growth study findings in his book Child Growth
Wilton Marion Krogman
Wilton Marion "Bill" Krogman was born on June 28, 1903 to Lydia Magdalena Wriedt and Wilhelm Claus Krogman in Oak Park, Illinois.
He attended the University of Chicago from 1921-1929, where he majored in anthropology, minored in biology and geo-paleontology, and earned his PhD. His postdoctoral work included several fellowships, teaching positions, and summer archeological "digs" through the Archaeological Survey of Illinois.
As a student, Krogman's work caught the attention of Dr. Milo Hellman, an orthodontist and physical anthropologist. At Hellman's suggestion, Krogman submitted a paper to the Chaim Prize Committee's annual Morris L. Chaim Prize of the First District Dental Society of New York City. Krogman's paper, "Anthropological Aspects of the Human Teeth and Dentition," received first prize and was published in its entirety in the Journal of Dental Research in 1927, for which Hellman was on the editorial board. Krogman received additional attention as a student from Dr. Thomas Wingate Todd, an anatomist, physical anthropologist, and director of the Department of Anthropology for Western Reserve University in Ohio. As such, Todd arranged a fellowship for Krogman from 1928-1929.
After receiving his PhD in 1929, Krogman participated as a National Reserve fellow at the Royal College of Surgeons in London from 1930-1931. Afterwards, he returned to Western Reserve University, where he joined the faculty as an associate professor of anatomy and physical anthropology. During this time, Krogman worked under Todd as a researcher for the Brush Foundation and the Bolton Fund, which focused on physical and psychological development in children, and on faciodental growth in children, respectively. It is during this time that Krogman also began his studies in craniology.
In 1938, Krogman returned to Chicago to join the faculty of the University of Chicago as an associate professor of anatomy and physical anthropology.
In 1947, Krogman moved to Pennsylvania to join the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania as a professor of physical anthropology for the Graduate School of Medicine and for the School of Dental Medicine. While teaching, he also served as a curator at the university's museum and was on staff at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Here, he founded the Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth—which would later be renamed the Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development. The Center carried out a 40-year longitudinal study that documented physical growth and faciodental development in children across age, sex, and race. Additionally, it participated in the Philadelphia portion of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1974). (See "Biographical/Historical: Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development," and collection series/sub-series descriptions for more information on the Center's research.)
While carrying out his child growth studies, Krogman's research contributed greatly to many interests in the field of anthropology, including: osteology, racial studies, genetics, medical anthropology, paleoanthropology, constitutional anthropology, and human engineering. Furthermore, together with Dr. Todd of Western Reserve University, he pioneered the study of forensic anthropology. His 1962 book, The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine, which has served as a definitive text for medical and police professionals alike.
In 1970, Krogman published the findings of his growth study through the Society for Research in Child Development.
In 1971, Krogman retired from the University of Pennsylvania becoming emeritus staff. That same year, Krogman became the director of research at the H. K. Cooper Clinic, where he continued to research and publish about oral and facial development and growth until retiring in 1983 due to health concerns.
Over the course of his career, Krogman earned a number of awards and honors, and held prestigious positions, including, but not limited to: chair for Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1948-1949), president of the Central Section of the American Anthropological Association (1937-1938), president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (1942-1949), chair of the Department of Physical Anthropology in the Graduate School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (1947-1951), the Viking Fund Medal in Physical Anthropology (1950), chair of the Committee on Research in Physical Anthropology of the National Research Council (1955-1971), the Drexel Institute Award (1958), president of the Society for Research in Child Development (1959-1961), president of the International Society of Cranio-Facial Biology (1962-1963), and election to the National Academy of Sciences (1966).
Wilton M. Krogman died on November 4, 1987 at age 84.
Chronology: Wilton Marion Krogman
1903 June 28
Born in Oak Park, Illinois
Student, University of Chicago
Research Fellow, Western Reserve University
Ph.D., University of Chicago (Anthropology)
National Reserve Fellow, Royal College of Surgeons, London
Faculty, Western Reserve University
Researcher, Western Reserve University (Brush Foundation)
Researcher, Western Reserve University (Bolton Fund)
Secretary, Section H (Anthropology), American Association for the Advancement of Science
President, Central Section, American Anthropological Association
Faculty, University of Chicago
President, American Association of Physical Anthropologists
Faculty, University of Pennsylvania
Founder, Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth (renamed W. M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development)
Curator, Penn Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania
Chair, Committee on Research in Physical Anthropology, National Research Council
Staff, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Researcher, Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth (renamed W. M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development)
Chair, Section H (Anthropology), American Association for the Advancement of Science
Member, Board of Governors, Society for Research in Child Development
Recipient, Viking Fund Medal in Physical Anthropology
Chair, Department of Physical Anthropology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
LL.D., Honorary Degree, Baylor University
Recipient, Drexel Institute Award
President, Society for Research in Child Development
President, International Society of Cranio-Facial Biology
Elected to the National Academy of Sciences
Recipient, Callahan Award and Medal, Ohio State Dental Association
Recipient, Ketcham Award, American Association of Orthodontists
D.Sc., Honorary Degree, University of Michigan
Faculty, University of Pennsylvania (Professor Emeritus)
Director of Research, H. K. Cooper (cleft palate) Clinic, Lancaster
Honorary Senior President, Third Inernational Orthodontic Congress, London
D.Sc., Honorary Degree, University of Pennsylvania
Recipient, Annual Award, American Association of Orthodontists
Recipient, Honors Award, American Cleft Palate Association
1987 November 4
Died in Lititz, Pennsylvania