Guide to the Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records, 1947-1989

Summary
Collection ID:
NAA.2017-20
Creators:
Krogman, Wilton Marion, 1903-1987
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)
University of Pennsylvania
Dates:
circa 1947 - circa 1989
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
520 Linear feet
520 boxes
Repository:
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records consist of data collected by the Krogman Growth Center over a 40-year period documenting physical growth and faciodental development in Philadelphia children from approximately 1947-1989. The study observed children throughout their lives, starting at infancy once Philadelphia's participation in the Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1974) began. In all, the data collected from these growth studies helped establish healthy growth standards for children, and reflect largest and longest U.S. studies on growth, pregnancy, and childhood. The collection includes a variety of mixed materials and medical records, including: photographs, clinical notes, patient evaluations, family medical histories, newspaper clippings, X-rays, and dental records.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
Access to the collection is restricted, due to the presence of personally identifiable information (PII). Access is subject to approval by the Smithsonian Institution's Institutional Review Board (IRB). Please contact the National Anthropological Archives for further information.
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records contain the data collected for the Philadelphia branch of the National Collaborative Perinatal Program (CPP) (1954-1974) and for a 40-year longitudinal study (1947-1983) by Wilton M. Krogman (and his successor, Solomon H. Katz) at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Data was collected in the form of a variety of medical records, including pediatric, dental, and hospital records, all of which contain PII: National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) numbers; birthdays; photographs; clinical notes; family medical histories; pediatric, psychological, and neurological evaluations; X-rays; and death reports (including autopsies and related newspaper clippings).
Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.

Arrangement
Arrangement
The collection is arranged into two series: (1) National Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), Dental Program, 1959-1976; and (2) Child Growth and Development: Patient Files Information, circa 1947-circa 1989.

Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development
Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development (originally known as the Philadelphia center for Research in child Growth) was founded by anthropologist Wilton M. Krogman in 1947. The Center was located in the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP).
Its objective was to establish growth standards for "normal," healthy children, as determined by age, sex, and race. Longitudinal research for this study began in approximately 1947. The study involved approximately 9,000 initial participants (7,200 of which were followed up on), who were observed annually for physical growth, psychological performance, faciodental development with cleft lip and/or palate, facial growth in regards to tooth development, and any existing endocrine disorders and orthopedic concerns.
Additionally, the Center led the Philadelphia portion of the 11-city Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) (1959-1974), which remains the largest and longest U.S.-based study of pregnancy and childhood ever conducted. In all, the research of the Center compromises the largest longitudinal study ever conducted on growth in the U.S. and the largest in the world on people of African descent, and produced hundreds of publications between 1959 and 2011. Many of the original participants contributed to later phases of the project as adults for decades thereafter, making a significant contribution to the study of aging. The results of Krogman's initial research helped establish physical growth standards for elementary and high school age children.
Chronology: Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development
1947
Founded by Wilton M. Krogman (originally named the Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth)
1947-1983
Longitudinal Research, Child Growth: Physical Growth, Faciodental Development, Dental Program
1959-1974
Longitudinal Research, National Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), Philadelphia
1970
Krogman publishes growth study findings through the Society for Research in Child Development
1971
Dr. Solomon H. Katz becomes new Center Director
1972
Krogman republishes growth study findings in his book Child Growth

Wilton Marion Krogman
Wilton Marion Krogman
Wilton Marion "Bill" Krogman was born on June 28, 1903 to Lydia Magdalena Wriedt and Wilhelm Claus Krogman in Oak Park, Illinois.
He attended the University of Chicago from 1921-1929, where he majored in anthropology, minored in biology and geo-paleontology, and earned his PhD. His postdoctoral work included several fellowships, teaching positions, and summer archeological "digs" through the Archaeological Survey of Illinois.
As a student, Krogman's work caught the attention of Dr. Milo Hellman, an orthodontist and physical anthropologist. At Hellman's suggestion, Krogman submitted a paper to the Chaim Prize Committee's annual Morris L. Chaim Prize of the First District Dental Society of New York City. Krogman's paper, "Anthropological Aspects of the Human Teeth and Dentition," received first prize and was published in its entirety in the Journal of Dental Research in 1927, for which Hellman was on the editorial board. Krogman received additional attention as a student from Dr. Thomas Wingate Todd, an anatomist, physical anthropologist, and director of the Department of Anthropology for Western Reserve University in Ohio. As such, Todd arranged a fellowship for Krogman from 1928-1929.
After receiving his PhD in 1929, Krogman participated as a National Reserve fellow at the Royal College of Surgeons in London from 1930-1931. Afterwards, he returned to Western Reserve University, where he joined the faculty as an associate professor of anatomy and physical anthropology. During this time, Krogman worked under Todd as a researcher for the Brush Foundation and the Bolton Fund, which focused on physical and psychological development in children, and on faciodental growth in children, respectively. It is during this time that Krogman also began his studies in craniology.
In 1938, Krogman returned to Chicago to join the faculty of the University of Chicago as an associate professor of anatomy and physical anthropology.
In 1947, Krogman moved to Pennsylvania to join the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania as a professor of physical anthropology for the Graduate School of Medicine and for the School of Dental Medicine. While teaching, he also served as a curator at the university's museum and was on staff at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Here, he founded the Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth—which would later be renamed the Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development. The Center carried out a 40-year longitudinal study that documented physical growth and faciodental development in children across age, sex, and race. Additionally, it participated in the Philadelphia portion of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1974). (See "Biographical/Historical: Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development," and collection series/sub-series descriptions for more information on the Center's research.)
While carrying out his child growth studies, Krogman's research contributed greatly to many interests in the field of anthropology, including: osteology, racial studies, genetics, medical anthropology, paleoanthropology, constitutional anthropology, and human engineering. Furthermore, together with Dr. Todd of Western Reserve University, he pioneered the study of forensic anthropology. His 1962 book, The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine, which has served as a definitive text for medical and police professionals alike.
In 1970, Krogman published the findings of his growth study through the Society for Research in Child Development.
In 1971, Krogman retired from the University of Pennsylvania becoming emeritus staff. That same year, Krogman became the director of research at the H. K. Cooper Clinic, where he continued to research and publish about oral and facial development and growth until retiring in 1983 due to health concerns.
Over the course of his career, Krogman earned a number of awards and honors, and held prestigious positions, including, but not limited to: chair for Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1948-1949), president of the Central Section of the American Anthropological Association (1937-1938), president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (1942-1949), chair of the Department of Physical Anthropology in the Graduate School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (1947-1951), the Viking Fund Medal in Physical Anthropology (1950), chair of the Committee on Research in Physical Anthropology of the National Research Council (1955-1971), the Drexel Institute Award (1958), president of the Society for Research in Child Development (1959-1961), president of the International Society of Cranio-Facial Biology (1962-1963), and election to the National Academy of Sciences (1966).
Wilton M. Krogman died on November 4, 1987 at age 84.
Chronology: Wilton Marion Krogman
1903 June 28
Born in Oak Park, Illinois
1921-1929
Student, University of Chicago
1928-1929
Research Fellow, Western Reserve University
1929
Ph.D., University of Chicago (Anthropology)
1930-1931
National Reserve Fellow, Royal College of Surgeons, London
1931-1938
Faculty, Western Reserve University
Researcher, Western Reserve University (Brush Foundation)
Researcher, Western Reserve University (Bolton Fund)
1933-1945
Secretary, Section H (Anthropology), American Association for the Advancement of Science
1937–1939
President, Central Section, American Anthropological Association
1938-1947
Faculty, University of Chicago
1944-1949
President, American Association of Physical Anthropologists
1947-1971
Faculty, University of Pennsylvania
1947
Founder, Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth (renamed W. M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development)
1947-?
Curator, Penn Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania
1947-1951
Chair, Committee on Research in Physical Anthropology, National Research Council
1947-1971
Staff, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Researcher, Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth (renamed W. M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development)
1948-1949
Chair, Section H (Anthropology), American Association for the Advancement of Science
1949-1950, 1957-59
Member, Board of Governors, Society for Research in Child Development
1950
Recipient, Viking Fund Medal in Physical Anthropology
1955-1971
Chair, Department of Physical Anthropology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
1955
LL.D., Honorary Degree, Baylor University
1958
Recipient, Drexel Institute Award
1959-1961
President, Society for Research in Child Development
1962-1963
President, International Society of Cranio-Facial Biology
1966
Elected to the National Academy of Sciences
1967
Recipient, Callahan Award and Medal, Ohio State Dental Association
1969
Recipient, Ketcham Award, American Association of Orthodontists
1969
D.Sc., Honorary Degree, University of Michigan
1971
Krogman retires
1971-1983
Faculty, University of Pennsylvania (Professor Emeritus)
Director of Research, H. K. Cooper (cleft palate) Clinic, Lancaster
1973
Honorary Senior President, Third Inernational Orthodontic Congress, London
1979
D.Sc., Honorary Degree, University of Pennsylvania
1982
Recipient, Annual Award, American Association of Orthodontists
1983
Recipient, Honors Award, American Cleft Palate Association
1987 November 4
Died in Lititz, Pennsylvania

Administration
Processing Information
Original organization and folder titles have been maintained. Processed and encoded by Katrina Schroeder, November 2018 - February 2019.
Author
Katrina Schroeder
Sponsor
Funding for the processing of this collection was provided by the Wenner-Gren Foundation.
Immediate Source of Acquisition
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Solomon Katz in 2017.

Bibliography: Wilton M. Krogman
Bibliography: Wilton M. Krogman
A complete list of Wilton M. Krogman's publicatons can be viewed in:
1991. Iscan, Mehmet Yasar. "The Publications of Wilton M. Krogman." In American Journal of Human Biology, Volume 3, pp. 555-562.
The following are notable publications by Krogman:
1927. "Anthropological Aspects of the Human Teeth and Dentition." In Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 7, no. 1. (March). Baltimore: Journal of Dental Research, Inc., 1927.
1941. "Growth of Man." In Tabulae biologicae, Volume 20. Junk Den Haag.
1956. "The Physical Growth of Children: An Appraisal of Studies, 1950-1955." In Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 20, No. 60. Nachdr. der Ausg. Lafayette, Ind., Child Development Publ. (Reprinted 1970 by New York: Kraus Reprint.)
1962. The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. Springfield, Ill: Thomas. (Updated and revised in 1986.)
1972. Child Growth. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Univ. of Michigan Press.
1976. "Fifty Years of Physical Anthropology: The Men, the Material, the Concepts, the Methods." In the Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 5.

Bibliography: Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) Publications, 1959-2011
Bibliography: Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) Publications, 1959-2011
Starting with the Center's participation in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1974), thousands of pieces of quantifiable and coded data have been collected from 9,000 participants who had been studied from infancy into adulthood. This data has influenced the creation of thousands of research papers, and was summed up by Krogman himself in his 1972 book Child Growth. The study also contributed to additional growth studies by other organizations, most notably the Johns Hopkins' Balitmore-based perinatal growth study.
For an overview of the project and resulting publications, see the following:
2009. Klebanoff, Mark. A. "The Collaborative Perinatal Project: A 50-Year Retrospective." US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2646177/

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Use
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Conditions Governing Access
Access to the collection is restricted, due to the presence of personally identifiable information (PII). Access is subject to approval by the Smithsonian Institution's Institutional Review Board (IRB). Please contact the National Anthropological Archives for further information.
Preferred Citation
Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Custodial History
Custodial History
The records were created by the Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development (previously known as the Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth) at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). The collection was housed at CHOP until 2008, when it was moved to the Penn Museum Archives. In 2017, the collection was donated to the Smithsonian Institution.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
African Americans Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Anthropology, physical Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Anthropology, physical -- Anthropologists Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Babies Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Forensic anthropology Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Infants Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Patient medical records Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Physical anthropologists Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Physical anthropology Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Physical anthropology -- dental anthropology Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Physical anthropology -- growth studies Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Krogman, Wilton Marion, 1903-1987 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
University of Pennsylvania Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland 20746
naa@si.edu
http://www.anthropology.si.edu/naa/