National Anthropological Archives

Book of drawings by anonymous Cheyenne prisoner at Fort Marion

Collection ID:
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887
Fort Marion artists
ca. 1875-1878
Physical Description:
1 Item
disbound volume of 14 drawings (8 leaves
colored pencil, ink, graphite, and crayon
18 x 21 cm.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
Bound book of unruled paper, now disbound and laminated. Includes scenes of hunting, ceremonies and daily Indian camp life. The manuscript now contains 14 drawings and the original volume cover. Original sequence of pictures not recorded. Identified as by a Cheyenne prisoner held at Ft. Marion, Florida (1875-78) on the basis of style and content.

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
William Babcock Hazen (1830-1887) was born in Vermont and spent his boyhood in Ohio. In 1855, he graduated from the U.S. Military Academy ranked Twenty-eight in his class. Prior to the Civil War, Hazen served with the Fourth and Eighth Infantry regiments, earning distinctions in the field while fighting against Indians in Oregon and southwestern Texas. Hazen went on to serve in the Civil War, where he fought in the Battles of Shiloh and Bentonville. After the war, he served as Inspector General of the Department of the Platte and did a tour at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. In 1869, he was stationed at Fort Sill, Oklahoma and later at Fort Smith, Arkansas, becoming Superintendent of Indian Affairs in 1870. While serving in this capacity, Hazen worked with various tribes in Oklahoma, including the Comanches and the Creeks. After publicly criticizing the role of the U.S. military in the Indian Wars, Hazen was posted to Fort Buford in Dakota Territory, where he stayed off and on from 1875 through 1880. For more information on William Hazen see Great Plains Command: William B. Hazen in the Frontier West by Marvin E. Kroeker, 1976, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Biographical / Historical
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. They were accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.

Immediate Source of Acquisition
Hazen, Mildred Mc Lean.
Custodial History
Received from Mrs. Mildred McLean Hazen, Washington, D.C., May 23, 1892 (USNM accession Number 25,748). Entire collection of material identified by Mrs. Hazen as Sioux collected by her late husband Gen. William B. Hazen during his military service in the west, except a group of material from Alaska. As components of the collection have been studied, many have been attributed to other tribes.

Digital Content
More …
Using the Collection
Manuscript 154064C, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

More Information
Local Numbers
Local Numbers
NAA MS 154064C

Local Note
Local Note
Believed to be "Sioux" by Mrs. Hazen, but re-catalogued Cheyenne on authority of Mrs. Karen Peterson (see USNM catalog card) and R. DeMallie, Guide to Siouan Manuscripts (1969). Per Father Peter Powell (October 1971) the drawings are Cheyenne, probably by Cohoe and certainly by a Ft Marion prisoner. The Sun Dance scene was verified as Cheyenne by William Fletcher and Gordon Yellowman, Cheyenne Sun Dance priests, in 2000.

United States Florida Fort Marion.

Album Information
Album Information
NAA MS 154064C 000

Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Works of art Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ledger drawings Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne) Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Indians of North America -- Great Plains Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland, Maryland 20746