National Anthropological Archives

MS 1874 Kiowa drawings by Silver Horn and anonymous artists

Collection ID:
Mooney, James, 1861-1921
Silver Horn, 1860-1940
ca. 1904
Physical Description:
3 Drawings
graphite and colored pencil
24 x 28 cm.-28 x 34 cm.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
The manuscript consists of three drawings on three leaves. The drawings depict a warrior, Haba's war gear and tipi, and an enlarged view of Haba's shield. One attributed to Silver Horn. The drawings appear to be associated with James Mooney's research on Kiowa shield and tipi designs.

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
Silver Horn, Haungooah in Kiowa, was born in 1860. His name also appears as Hugone, Hangun or Hawgon. He was a member of a prominent Kiowa family. His residential band, led by his father Agiati (Gathering Feathers), actively opposed the governments efforts to confine the Kiowa to a reservation. Members of his family participated in the Red River War of 1874-1875 and were among the last Kiowa to surrender to the military. In 1891, Silver Horn enlisted in Troop L of the 7th U.S. Cavalry. He served with Troop L, which was part of broader experiment involving the enlistment of all-Indian troops, until 1894. In 1901, Silver Horn secured employment with James Mooney, an ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Mooney was interested in the designs on Kiowa shields and tipis and hired Silver Horn to produce illustrations of the designs and models of the shields and tipis. The project provided Silver Horn with steady work between 1902 and 1904 and occassional employment between 1904 and 1906. Silver Horn also produced illustrations for Hugh Scott, an army officer and avocational ethnologist. Silver Horn was active in the religious life of the Kiowa. He was a Tsaidetalyi bundle keeper and participated in the Sun Dance, Ghost Dance, and Peyote religion. He was also a member of the Ohoma society. Silverhorn died on December 14, 1940. For additional biographic information on Silver Horn, see Candace Greene, Silver Horn Master Illustrator of the Kiowas, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.
Biographical / Historical
Haba was Silver Horn's half-brother and was also employed by James Mooney.
Biographical / Historical
James Mooney (1861-1921) was a self-taught ethnologist. He was employed by the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1885 until his death. In this capacity, he worked extensively among the Cherokee and Kiowa. Among the Kiowa his studies focused on pictorial calendars, the peyote religion, and heraldry, the term he used to refer to the designs on shields and painted tipis. In the course of his study of Kiowa and Cheyenne heraldry, he commissioned illustrations of shield and tipi designs, as well as miniature shields and tipis. For additional biographic information on James Mooney see: Christopher Winters, General Editor, International Dictionary of Anthropologists, Garland Publishing, 1991. Neil M. Judd, The Bureau of American Ethnology - A Partial History, University of Oklahoma Press, 1967. L.G. Moses, The Indian Man - A Biography of James Mooney, University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

Custodial History
The drawings comprise part of James Mooney's notes on Kiowa shield and tipi designs.

Digital Content
More …
Using the Collection
Manuscript 1874, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

More Information
Local Numbers
Local Numbers
NAA MS 1874

Local Note
Local Note
The dates for the manuscript are based on the dates when James Mooney was most actively involved in his heraldry studies. They correspond with the period during which he employed Silver Horn his brother Haba. Dating and attribution to Silver Horn based on Candace Greene, Silver Horn Master Illustrator of the Kiowas, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.

United States Oklahoma Territory.

Album Information
Album Information
MS 1874 000

Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Shields -- Kiowa Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Language and languages -- Documentation Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ledger drawings Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Kiowa Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Indians of North America -- Great Plains Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland, Maryland 20746