National Anthropological Archives

MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by anonymous Kiowa artist

Collection ID:
Physical Description:
20 Drawings
18 leaves
graphite and colored pencil
17 x 20 cm.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
Twenty drawings in a commercial exercise book that has been rebound. The book had been sewn into a second cover prior to its acquisition by the Smithsonian. This second cover was removed when the book was rebound. It is still with the manuscript. The drawings depict hunting, courtship, dance, social gatherings, Indian scouts, mounted and dismounted warriors, and part of the Kiowa Sun Dance. The inside of the front cover is inscribed, "Capt Pratt USA", "By the Indians", "By the Indians incarcerated in Fort Marion St. Augustine in 1876", "Engaged in the Custer Massacre", "Care of Capt Pratt in charge assisted by the following ladies Mrs Linethurst, Mrs Gibbs - Mrs S' Mother St Augustine Mrs Kingsly Gibbs aunt Mrs Valentine Phila Miss Reed", "Carlisle was the outcome of Capt Pratt's efforts assisted by Mrs Kingsly Gibbs of St Augustine". The back cover is inscribed "Works of the Indians while in prison in Fort Marion St Augustine Florida/ after the Custer Massacre in care of Capt Pratt/ The founder of Carlisle/ These Indians finally taken there for housing and taming/ by the Government/ under the care of Capt Pratt USA". In addition to the inscription, the back cover bears the image of a man wearing a breechcloth, which was scratched into its surface. The name "ZOTOM" appears in stencil block letters on the back cover and the inside of the front cover. Although Zotom was a noted Kiowa artist, it is not clear that he is responsible for the drawings. Candace Greene notes that they are unlike his later work and early documented examples of his drawing style have not been identified.

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.

Custodial History
Dr. Lincoln Godfrey of Ardmore, Pennsylvania inherited the book from his cousin Mrs. Bessie Valentine of Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. Upon Mr. Godfrey's death in 1959, the book passed to his wife, Mrs. Patricia Drexel. In 1998, the National Museum of Natural History purchased the book from the Robert Abbe Museum of Bar Harbor, Maine and Patricia and Victor Drexel.

Digital Content
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Using the Collection
Manuscript 98-54, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

More Information
Local Numbers
Local Numbers
NAA MS 98-54

United States Florida Fort Marion.

Album Information
Album Information
MS 98-54 000

Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Ledger drawings Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Kiowa Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Indians of North America -- Great Plains Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland, Maryland 20746