National Anthropological Archives

Guide to MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by an anonymous Kiowa artist

Collection ID:
Physical Description:
16 Drawings
graphite and colored pencil
6.5 x 8 inches

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
The collection consists of sixteen (16) drawings in a commercial exercise book. The book had been sewn into a second cover prior to its acquisition by the Smithsonian. This second cover was removed and the book was rebound. The second cover has been retained.
The drawings depict hunting, courtship, dance, social gatherings, Indian scouts, mounted and dismounted warriors, and part of the Kiowa Sun Dance. The inside of the front cover is inscribed:
"Capt Pratt U.S.A." "Work by Indians" "By the Indians incarcerated in Fort Marion St. Augustine Florida in 1876" "Engaged in the Custer Massacre" "Care of Capt Pratt in charge assisted by the following ladies-- Mrs Linethurst, Mrs Gibbs - Mrs S'- Mother St Augustine, Mrs Kingsly Gibbs - aunt, Mrs Valentine - Phila, Miss Reed" "Carlisle was the outcome of Capt Pratt's efforts assisted by Mrs Kingsly Gibbs of St Augustine"
The back cover is inscribed:
"Works of the Indians while in prison in Fort Marion St Augustine Florida-- After the Custer Massacre in care of Capt Pratt-- The founder of Carlisle-- These Indians finally taken there for housing and taming--by the Government-- under the care of Capt Pratt USA"
In addition to the inscription, the back cover bears the image of a man wearing a breechcloth, which was scratched into its surface. The name "ZOTOM" appears in stencil block letters on the back cover and the inside of the front cover. Although Zotom was a noted Kiowa artist, it is not clear that he is responsible for the drawings. Candace Greene notes that they are unlike his later work and early documented examples of his drawing style have not been identified.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.

Historical Note
Historical Note
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion.

Custodial History
Dr. Lincoln Godfrey of Ardmore, Pennsylvania inherited the book from his cousin Mrs. Bessie Valentine of Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. Upon Mr. Godfrey's death in 1959, the book passed to his wife, Mrs. Patricia Drexel. In 1998, the National Museum of Natural History purchased the book from the Robert Abbe Museum of Bar Harbor, Maine and Patricia and Victor Drexel.

Digital Content
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Using the Collection
Preferred Citation
MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by an anonymous Kiowa artist, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Conditions Governing Access
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Conditions Governing Use
Contact the repository for terms of use.

More Information
Local Numbers
Local Numbers
MS 98-54 000

Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Works of art Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ledger drawings Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Kiowa Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Florida -- Fort Marion Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
North America Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland, Maryland 20746