Guide to MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography, 1849-1902 (bulk 1870-1895)
Digitized Content

Summary
Collection ID:
NAA.MS2372
Creators:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894
Dates:
1849-1902
bulk 1870-1895
Languages:
English
Collection is in
English
except for lists of vocabularies and/or signs in various Native American languages. Some documents that consider sign languages in other areas of the world may contain vocabulary in those languages.
Physical Description:
41.29 Linear feet
22 boxes, 29 folders, 3 mounted drawings, and 3 rolled items
Repository:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was an ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology who focused primarily on Native American sign language and pictography. This collection reflects Mallery's research interests and methods. Much of the collection is comprised of correspondence and notes relating to sign language and pictography and is organized chiefly by either the cultural or geographic region to which the material belongs. Bound volumes of several of his publications are included, along with annotated draft copies from collaborators. In the case of Mallery's work on pictography, the collection includes several oversize items including original works and reproductions.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
This collection contains Garrick Mallery's research and writings as a BAE ethnologist, and is largely comprised of correspondence and preparatory materials for publications on Native American sign language and pictography. The geographic scope of the material is chiefly the present-day United States and Canada, though other areas of the world are represented less comprehensively. Correspondence and research notes include verbal descriptions of signs, sometimes with illustrations included. Bound volumes of Mallery's publications are included, along with annotations from collaborators. In addition, this collection includes notecards, drawings, illustrations, photographs, articles, and art objects. Art objects (mostly oversize) deal chiefly with Dakota winter counts and other artifacts.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.

Arrangement
Arrangement
This collection is arranged into 3 series: 1) Research Notes, undated; 2) Materials on Sign Language, 1843-1849, 1873-1894; 3) Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs, 1849-1902, undated

Biographical Note
Biographical Note
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania and practiced law in Philadelphia from 1853 until the outbreak of the American Civil War. While serving in the army, he became interested in Native American sign language and pictography, perhaps while performing his duties in frontier areas. After retiring from the military in 1879, Mallery was appointed to the newly created Bureau of American Ethnology as one of its first ethnologists. In his work with the Bureau, Mallery pioneered the study of sign language and pictographs, examining them as a universal human phenomenon with a direct link to spoken language.
In his work, Mallery collected and examined sign language vocabulary from Native American groups throughout the U.S. and Canada and regularly solicited contributions from collaborators. He also related his findings to examples from the wider world, comparing the formation of Native American signs to those in other areas by hearing individuals and by the deaf. Mallery completed several publications on the topic throughout the 1880s, notably
Introduction to the Study of Sign language Among the North American Indians
(1880),
A Collection of Gesture- Signs and Signals of the North American Indians
(1880), and "Sign-language among North American Indians Compared with that Among other People and Deaf-mutes," which appeared in the
BAE 1st Annual Report
(1881).
While most widely known for his work with sign language, Mallery also undertook extensive research into Native American pictography. Like his work with sign language, he both conducted original research and solicited assistance from collaborators. He was especially interested in the representational images in Dakota winter counts and petroglyphs in the United States and throughout the world.
Sources Consulted
Fletcher, Robert. "Garrick Mallery, President of the Philosophical Society of Washington, in 1888." In
Brief Memoirs of Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A., Who Died October 24, 1894
, 3-8. Washington: Judd & Detweiler, 1895.
Fletcher, Robert. "Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A."
American Anthropologist
8, no. 2 (1895): 79-80.
Chronology
1831
Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on April 25
1850
Graduates Yale College
1853
Earns LL. B. from the University of Pennsylvania
Admitted to the Pennsylvania bar
1853-1861
Practices law in Philadelphia
1861
Enters the volunteer army of the United States
1862
Severely wounded in the battle of Peach Orchard, Virginia
Captured and held prisoner at Libby prison in Richmond, Virginia
1866
Completes service with volunteer army of the United States
Accepts commission in regular army of the United States
1870
Marries Helen W. Wyckoff
1879
Retires from the United States army due to disability
Appointed to the Bureau of American Ethnology
1880
Publishes
Introduction to the Study of Sign-Language Among the North American Indians as Illustrating the Gesture-Speech of Mankind
and
A Collection of Gesture-Signs and Signals of the North American Indians With Some Comparisons
1881
Publishes "Sign Language Among North American Indians, Compared with that Among Other Peoples and Deaf-Mutes"
1894
Dies after a short illness in Washington, D.C., on October 24

Administration
Processing Information
Information in this finding aid was pulled from an existing folder list which reflects the titles written on individual folders in the collection.
The folder titles of this collection were written by the creator of the collection, Garrick Mallery. Some of these folder titles include offensive or outdated language. The original titles have been retained to preserve the historical integrity of the archival record. Use of this language does not reflect the views of the National Anthropological Archives or the Smithsonian Institution.
Processed by NAA Staff.
Encoded by Patricia Greeene, 2015.
Author
Patricia Greene
Immediate Source of Acquisition
MS 2372 was transferred from the Bureau of Ethnology Archives to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives with the merger of the BAE and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History in 1965. The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives was renamed the National Anthropological Archives in 1968.

Digital Content
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Selected Bibliography
Selected Bibliography
1877. "A Calendar of the Dakota Nation." Department of the Interior United States Geological and Geographical Survey, F.V. Hayden, U.S. Geologist-in-Charge.
Bulletin of the Survey
3, no. 1 (1877): 4-25.
1877. "A Calendar of the Dakota Nation." Department of the Interior United States Geological and Geographical Survey, F.V. Hayden, U.S. Geologist-in-Charge.
Bulletin of the Survey
3 (1), 4-25. Washington, 1877.
1878. "The Former and Present Number of Our Indians." In
Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Twenty-Sixth meeting, Held at Nashville, Tennessee, August, 1877
, 340-366. Salem: The Salem Press, 1878.
1880.
Introduction to the Study of Sign-Language Among the North American Indians as Illustrating the Gesture-Speech of Mankind
. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1880.
1880. "The Sign Language of the North American Indians."
American Annals of the Deaf
25, no. 1 (1880): 1-20.
1880.
A Collection of Gesture-Signs and Signals of the North American Indians With Some Comparisons
. Vol. 1,
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Publications
. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1880.
1881. "Sign Language Among North American Indians, Compared with that Among Other Peoples and Deaf-Mutes." In
Bureau of American Ethnology 1st Annual Report (1879-1880)
, edited by J. W. Powell, 263-552. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1881.
1881. "The Gesture Speech of Man."
Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 30th Meeting, Held at Cincinnati, Ohio, August, 1881
, 283-313. Salem: The Salem Press, 1882. Reprinted in
Aboriginal Sign Languages of the Americas and Australia
, edited by D.J. Umiker-Sebeok and T.A. Sebeok. Vol. 1, 407-37. New York: Plenum, 1978.
1886. "Pictographs of the North American Indian: A Preliminary Paper." In
Bureau of American Ethnology 4th Annual Report (1882-1883)
, 2-256. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1886.
1891.
Greeting By Gesture
. New York: Appleton, 1891.
1893. "Picture-Writing of the American Indians." In
Bureau of American Ethnology 10th Annual Report (1888-1889)
, 3-822. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1893.

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Use
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Conditions Governing Access
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.
Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Preferred Citation
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

Related Materials
See MS 2322 A collection of gesture-signs and signals of the North American Indians for more of Garrick Mallery's work on sign language.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Language and languages -- Documentation Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Oceania Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Pictographs Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Arctic peoples Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Indians of North America Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sign language Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Picture-writing Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ethnology Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Anthropology Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland 20746
naa@si.edu
http://www.anthropology.si.edu/naa/