Biographical / Historical
Tichkematse, or Squint Eyes (Quchkeimus), 1857-1932 was a member of the Southern Cheyenne. Together with other Southern Plains warriors he was held prisoner at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida from 1875-78, during which period he and others became well known as artists. While imprisoned, he learned to speak English and to read and write. Upon release he attended school at the Hampton Institute in Virginia for about a year before coming to work at the Smithsonian Institution. During his time at the Smithsonian (1879-1880) he was trained to prepare bird and mammal specimens for study and display, participating in field expeditions to Florida and the American Southwest. He also served as a gallery guide, a source on Plains gesture language, and acquired cultural materials for the collections from Cheyenne friends and relatives, as well as producing drawings. Upon his return to Oklahoma (then Indian Territory), he served as an Army scout at Fort Supply. For additional information, see Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, by Karen Daniels Petersen (Oklahoma Press, Norman 1971). On his time as a scout, see "Artists in Blue: the Indian Scouts of Fort Reno and Fort Supply," by Candace S. Greene (American Indian Art Magazine, Winter 1992, pp.50-57).
Etahdleuh (1856-1888) was also known as Etahdleeuh, Etadeleuh, Etahdleuh Doanmoe, Boy, and Boy Hunting. He was imprisoned at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida from 1875-1878. After his release from Fort Marion, he attended the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia, arriving in April, 1878. In 1879, he traveled to the Indian Territory to recruit pupils to attend the Carlisle Institute in Pennsylvania, where he would study and work on and off from 1879 to 1887. He made two extended trips back to the reservation during this period. From February to May 1880, he worked at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. He was trained as a Presbyterian missionary and returned to the reservation in January 1888 to serve in this capacity. For further biographical information Etahdleuh see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.
Edwin Porter Upham (1845-1918) was a museum assistant who worked with the Smithsonian Institution's archeology collections for forty years. Born in Massachusetts, he received a public education there before joining the army during the American Civil War. In 1878, he was hired as an assistant to Dr. Charles Rau, an archeologist at the Smithsonian. After Rau's death, Upham worked with Dr. Thomas Wilson, with whom he cowrote a book entitled Prehistoric Art; Or, The Origin of Art as Manifested in the Works of Prehistoric Man (1898). In 1906, Upham was appointed aid in the division of prehistoric archeology, a position he held until his death.