National Anthropological Archives

MS 4252 Military target record book containing drawings by Silver Horn and others and a pictorial diary by Silver Horn

Collection ID:
Silver Horn, 1860-1940
ca. 1884-1897
Physical Description:
1 Item
volume of 186 drawings (129 leaves
graphite, colored pencil, watercolor, ink
35 x 30 cm.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
Bound volume of preprinted US Army forms for recording results of target practice, subsequently filled with drawings of courting, hunting, warfare, Saynday stories, and scenes from the Kiowa Sun Dance by Silver Horn and other Kiowa artists, probably all Army scouts. The book also contains a 30- page pictorial diary by Silver Horn, spanning the period between January 1893 to June 1897. The diary starts near the end of the book and proceeds from the back towards the front. Among the many names inscribed in the book are "Hawgone" (Silver Horn) and "Auchchiah," both of whom served in Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian troop that was commanded by Scott. The manuscript contains 186 drawings, as well as a number of scribbled images. The pages are hand numbered, 5-356, in red ink in the upper left corner of each page. A second hand pagination in black ink runs from the back of the book toward the front, encompassing the last thirty pages of the book. Previous inscriptions in the book record the results of target practice at Fort Meade, Dakota Territory in 1884. Hugh Scott was stationed at Fort Meade between 1883 to 1886.

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
Silver Horn, Haungooah in Kiowa, was born in 1860. His name also appears as Hugone, Hangun or Hawgon. He was a member of a prominent Kiowa family. His residential band, led by his father Agiati (Gathering Feathers), actively opposed the governments efforts to confine the Kiowa to a reservation. Members of his family participated in the Red River War of 1874-1875 and were among the last Kiowa to surrender to the military. In 1891, Silver Horn enlisted in Troop L of the 7th U.S. Cavalry. He served with Troop L, which was part of broader experiment involving the enlistment of all-Indian troops, until 1894. In 1901, Silver Horn secured employment with James Mooney, an ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Mooney was interested in the designs on Kiowa shields and tipis and hired Silver Horn to produce illustrations of the designs and models of the shields and tipis. The project provided Silver Horn with steady work between 1902 and 1904 and occassional employment between 1904 and 1906. Silver Horn also produced illustrations for Hugh Scott, an army officer and avocational ethnologist. Silver Horn was active in the religious life of the Kiowa. He was a Tsaidetalyi bundle keeper and participated in the Sun Dance, Ghost Dance, and Peyote religion. He was also a member of the Ohoma society. Silverhorn died on December 14, 1940. For additional biographic information on Silver Horn, see Candace Greene, Silver Horn: Master Illustrator of the Kiowas, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.
Biographical / Historical
Hugh Scott was a graduate of the United States Military Academy and served as an officer in the Seventh Cavalry. He was initially stationed in the Dakota Territory. There he learned Plains Indian sign language, a skill that enabled him to communicate more easily with the Cheyenne, Sioux, Crow, and Arikara scouts with whom he worked. He was transferred to Ft. Sill, Indian Territory in 1889. From 1891 to 1893, he commanded Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian troop that was comprised primarily of Kiowa men. He was an avocational ethnologist and compiled a small collection of Plains Indian material during his service in the West, including paintings and drawings by Silver Horn. In 1911, he published illustrations redrawn from NAA MS 4252 in an article entitled Notes on the Kado, or Sun Dance of the Kiowa, which appeared in American Anthropologist. For additional information on Hugh Scott, see Candace Greene, Silver Horn Master Illustrator of the Kiowas, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001 and Hugh L. Scott, Some Memories of a Soldier, Century Company, 1928.

Custodial History
Hugh Scott purchased the book from Silver Horn for twenty dollars in 1897. Scott mentions the acquisition of the book in NAA MS 2932. In 1936, Scott's widow sold the book to the Bureau of American Ethnology for fifty dollars.

Digital Content
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Using the Collection
Manuscript 4252, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

More Information
Local Numbers
Local Numbers
NAA MS 4252
OPPS NEG 1464-c

Local Note
Local Note
Information for the collection record was drawn from Candace Greene, Silver Horn Master Illustrator of the Kiowas, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.

United States Oklahoma Territory Fort Sill.
United States Oklahoma. Fort Sill.
United States Oklahoma Territory. Mount Scott.
United States Oklahoma. Mount Scott.

Album Information
Album Information
MS 4252 000

Many of the Sun Dance images are published with explanations in Notes on the Kado, or Sun Dance of the Kiowa, American Anthropologist n.s. 13(3): 345-79, Hugh L. Scott, 1911. Several of the Saynday images are published with associated stories in Saynday Was Coming Along, Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, Candace Greene and Frederick Reuss, 1993.

Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Language and languages -- Documentation Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ledger drawings Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Diaries Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Kiowa Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Indians of North America -- Great Plains Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland, Maryland 20746