Guide to MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers, 1873-1939
Digitized Content

Summary
Collection ID:
NAA.MS4558
Creators:
La Flesche, Francis, 1857-1932
Fletcher, Alice C. (Alice Cunningham), 1838-1923
Dates:
1873-1939
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
19 Linear feet
50 boxes
Repository:
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.
The papers have been divided into three general categories: the papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher, the papers of Francis La Flesche, and the ethnographic research of Fletcher and La Flesche. The first two categories represent personal and professional materials of Fletcher and La Flesche. The third section holds the majority of the ethnographic material in the collection.
Of primary concern are Fletcher and La Flesche's ethnological investigations conducted among the Plains Indians, particularly the Omaha and Osage. Fletcher's Pawnee field research and her allotment work for the Bureau of Indian Affairs among the Omaha, Nez Perce, and Winnebago are represented in the collection. A substantial portion of the ethnographic material reflects Fletcher and La Flesche's studies of Native American music. Much of the correspondence in the papers of Fletcher and La Flesche is rich with information about the situation of Omaha peoples in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Also included in the collection are documents related to Fletcher's work with the Archaeological Institute of America and the School for American Archaeology. Additionally, substantial amounts of Fletcher's early anthropological and historical research are found among her correspondence, lectures, anthropological notes, and early field diaries. La Flesche's literary efforts are also generously represented.

Arrangement
Arrangement
The collection is divided into the following 3 series: 1) Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers, 1873-1925; 2) Francis La Flesche papers, 1881-1930; 3) Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, 1877-1939.
Series 1: Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers is divided into the following 10 subseries: 1.1) Incoming correspondence, 1874-1923 (bulk 1882-1923); 1.2) Outgoing correspondence, 1873-1921; 1.3) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1925; 1.4) Correspondence between Fletcher and La Flesche, 1895-1922; 1.5) Publications, 1882-1920; 1.6) Organizational records, 1904-1921; 1.7) General anthropological notes, undated; 1.8) Lectures, circa 1878-1910; 1.9) Diaries, 1881-1922; 1.10) Biography and memorabilia, 1878-1925.
Series 2: Francis La Flesche papers is divided into the following 6 subseries: 2.11) General correspondence, 1890-1929; 2.12) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1930; 2.13) Publications, 1900-1927; 2.14) Literary efforts, undated; 2.15) Personal diaries, 1883-1924; 2.16) Biography and memorabilia, 1886-1930.
Series 3: Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche is divided into the following 12 subseries: 3.17) Alaska, 1886-1887; 3.18) Earth lodges, 1882, 1898-1899; 3.19) Music, 1888-1918; 3.20) Nez Perce, 1889-1909; 3.21) Omaha, 1882-1922; 3.22) Osage, 1896-1939; 3.23) Pawnee, 1897-1910; 3.24) Pipes, undated; 3.25) Sioux, 1877-1896; 3.26) Other tribes, 1882-1922; 3.27) Publications collected, 1884-1905, undated; 3.28) Photographs, undated.

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923) was an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Francis La Flesche (1856-1923) was an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Chronology of the Life of Alice Cunningham Fletcher
1838 March 15
Born in Havana, Cuba
Chronology of the Life of Alice Cunningham Fletcher
1838 March 15
Born in Havana, Cuba

Administration
Processing Information
In encoding the finding aid for upload into the Smithsonian Online Virtual Archives (SOVA) in 2017, the archivist re-assigned series and subseries numbers to the categories in this collection. The three "collection" hierarchies assigned by the original archivist were re-labeled series (Series 1: Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers; Series 2: Francis La Flesche papers; Series 3: Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche). Nested series under those divisions were re-labeled as subseries, though retaining the original numbering system (i.e., series 23 became subseries 3.23).
Also in 2017, index file boxes and oversize boxes were re-numbered consecutively to other boxes in the collection. Index Files #1-7 became boxes 34-40. Oversize boxes 1 and 2 became boxes 41 and 42.
Collection processed by Joy Elizabeth Rhode, 2000. Finding aid updated by Loraine Wang, 2013 July. Finding aid updated and encoded by Katherine Madison, 2017 August.
Existence and Location of Copies
Portions of the collection have been microfilmed, including the entirety of Fletcher's incoming correspondence.
Separated Materials
Ethnographic photographs from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in Photo Lot 24.
Glass plate negatives from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in the BAE glass negatives collection (Negative Numbers 4439-4515).
Author
Joy Elizabeth Rhode
Immediate Source of Acquisition
The papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche have been received from an undocumented number of sources. Portions of Fletcher's ethnographic papers were donated to the archives by Mrs. G. David Pearlman in memory of her husband in 1959.

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Use
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Conditions Governing Access
The Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers are open for research.
Access to the Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers requires an appointment.
Preferred Citation
Manuscript 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

Appendix: Previous Organization of This Collection
Appendix: Previous Organization of This Collection
The following list is intended for researchers seeking items based upon the previous draft register. Noted are the old series numbers of the collection in order as correlated with new series numbers. New folder titles are included when the location of an item in the new organization is not immediately clear from the finding aid.
OLD SERIES, TITLE
NEW SERIES, LOCATION
ALICE FLETCHER PAPERS
1. Letters received:
subseries 1.1, box 1-2.
3. Fletcher to La Flesche:
subseries 1.4, box 5.
4. La Flesche to Fletcher:
subseries 1.4, box 5.
5. Omaha papers:
subseries 1.3, box 3.
6. Winnebago papers:
subseries 1.3, box 4.
7. Sacred Hide theft
subseries 1.3, box 5.
8. California anthropology:
subseries 1.3, box 5.
10. AIA official business:
subseries 1.6, box 7-8.
12. Fletcher and Hewett:
subseries 1.6, box 7.
13. Colorado Cliff Dwellings:
subseries 1.6, box 8.
15. Clippings, AIA:
subseries 1.6, box 8.
16. Act to preserve antiquities:
subseries 1.6, box 7.
17. Leo Tolstoy:
subseries 1.10, box 13.
19. Bibliographic notes:
subseries 1.10, box 12.
20. Clippings about work:
subseries 1.10, box 12-13.
21. Clippings, Harvard:
subseries 1.10, box 12.
22. Indian music clippings:
subseries 1.10, box 12.
22a. AAAS 1896 clippings:
subseries 1.10, box 12-13.
23. Mementoes and souvenirs:
subseries 1.10, box 12-13.
24. Photos of family, friends:
subseries 3.28, box 33.
25. Papers relative to death:
subseries 1.10, box 13.
27. Address books, calling cards:
subseries 1.9, box 12 and oversize box 1.
28. Reprints of publications:
subseries 1.5, box 5-7.
29. Historical lectures:
subseries 1.8, box 9-10.
30. Archaeological lectures:
subseries 1.8, box 9-10.
31. Lectures on Indians:
subseries 1.8, box 10.
32. Armenia materials:
subseries 1.8, box 10.
33. Anthropological notes:
subseries 1.7, box 8.
FRANCIS LA FLESCHE PAPERS
35. General correspondence:
subseries 2.11, box 14.
36. Government correspondence:
subseries 2.12, box 14 (employment).
37. Pettigrew correspondence:
subseries 2.12, box 15.
38. The Middle Five:
subseries 2.12, box 14.
Chronology of the Life of Alice Cunningham Fletcher
1838 March 15
Born in Havana, Cuba
40. Omaha tribal affairs:
subseries 2.12, box 15.
41. Inquiries and responses:
subseries 2.12, box 15.
42. Osage dictionary:
subseries 2.12, box 15.
43. Misc. business letters:
subseries 2.12, box 15.
45. Clippings of reviews:
subseries 2.16, box 17.
46. Membership certificates:
subseries 2.16, box 17.
47. Clippings, life and work:
subseries 2.16, box 17.
49. Reprints by La Flesche:
subseries 2.13, box 15.
ETHNOGRAPHIC PAPERS
51. EARTH LODGES
subseries 3.18, box 18.
MUSIC
52. Music lectures:
subseries 3.19, box 18.
54. Transcriptions by others:
subseries 3.19, box 19; oversize box 2.
55. Music derivative of Indian music
subseries 3.19, oversize box 2.
56. Misc. and clippings:
subseries 3.19, box 19.
NEZ PERCE
57. "Ethnologic Gleanings"
subseries 3.20, box 20.
58. Billy Williams map materials:
subseries 3.20, box 20.
59. Manuscript of map materials:
subseries 3.20, box 20.
60. Nez Perce vocabulary:
subseries 3.20, box 20.
62. Notebook, Nez Perce
subseries 3.20, box 19.
63. Misc. ethnography:
subseries 3.20, box 19-20.
OMAHA
69. Informants notes:
subseries 3.21, box 20-21.
70. Reading notes, history:
subseries 3.21, box 22.
71. Misc. notes:
subseries 3.21, box 22.
72. Allotments
subseries 1.3, box 3.
74. Photographs:
NAA Photo Lot 24.
OSAGE
79. 36 Annual Report:
subseries 3.22, box 23-4.
80. 39 Annual Report:
subseries 3.22, box 24.
81. 45 Annual Report:
subseries 3.22, box 25-6.
82. 43 Annual Report:
subseries 3.22, box 25.
83. War and Peace:
subseries 3.22, box 27-8.
84. War bundles:
subseries 3.22, box 23.
85. Tattooing rite:
subseries 3.22, box 23.
86. Peyote rite:
subseries 3.22, box 23.
87. General ritual:
subseries 3.22, box 23.
91. Osage Magazine articles:
subseries 3.22, box 28.
PAWNEE
93. General ethnography:
subseries 3.23, box 29.
94. Ha-ko Ceremony:
subseries 3.23, box 29.
95. Star of the West:
subseries 3.23, box 29.
96. Buffalo ceremony:
subseries 3.23, box 29.
DAKOTA
101. TRIP: OMAHA TO SOUTH DAKOTA
1. "Fletcher's Scientific Work:"
subseries 2.13, box 15.
subseries2-3. Original notebooks and drawings:
subseries 1.9, box 11.
4-5. Transcripts of notebooks:
subseries 1.9, box 11-12.
6. "Life Among the Indians:"
subseries 1.5, box 7.
WINNEBAGO
103. Allotments:
subseries 1.3, box 4.
OTHER TRIBES
111. Mexican notes:
subseries 3.26, box 30.