National Anthropological Archives

Guide to MS 7536 Pochoir prints of ledger drawings by the Kiowa Five, 1929

Collection ID:
Asah, Spencer, approximately 1908-1954
Auchiah, James, 1906-1974
Mopope, Stephen, 1898-1974
Hokeah, Jack, 1902-1969
Smoky, Lois, 1907-1981
Tsatoke, Monroe, 1904-1937
Jacobson, Oscar Brousse, 1882-1966
Physical Description:
24 Paintings
watercolor applied by pochoir
11 x 14 inches

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
The collection consists of twenty-four (24) prints illustrating dancers, figures in traditional attire, and ceremonial events. Each sheet is numbered in the upper right corner, with numbers 1 through 30. The set is complete except for 3, 5, 7, 22, 26, and 29. The prints are from a portfolio containing 30 plates and an accompanying text by Jacobson published by C. Szwedizicki, Nice, France. The painters are the so-called "Kiowa Five," renamed the "Kiowa Six": Jack Hokeah, Spencer Asah, Bougetah (Lois) Smoky, Stephen Mopope, and Monroe Tsatoke. For this set of drawings, an electrostatic copy of the text as published in 1979 with an essay by Jamake Highwater and the Jacobson text in French with an added translation in English has been added (Oscar Brousse Jacobson, Kiowa Indian Art: Watercolor Paintings in Color by the Indians of Oklahoma) with an introductory essay by Jamake Highwater, Bell Editions, Santa Fe, ca. 1979). The locations of the missing art and the original 1929 text and covers are not known.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.

Historical Note
Historical Note
The Kiowa Five were a group of painters who earned national and international acclaim during the early twentieth century. The group actually consisted of six individuals: Spencer Asah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke, Lois Smoky, and James Auchiah. A number of the artists attended St. Patrick's Mission School in Anadarko, Oklahoma, where they received art instruction from Sister Olivia Taylor. Susan Peters, a government field matron, also took an interest in the young artists' work. She arranged for an artist from Chickasha, Mrs. Willie Baze Lane, to provide art lessons. Eventually Ms. Peters persuaded Dr. Oscar Jacobson, head of the school of art at the University of Oklahoma, to provide additional training for the artists. In 1926, Asah, Hokeah, Tsatoke, and Mopope arrived at the University. The artists were not officially enrolled, but they received special instruction from Jacobson and Dr. Edith Mahier, another professor in the school of art. In January 1927, Lois Smoky, a young Kiowa woman, arrived to study with the other artists. In spring, the artists were compelled to return home to tend to agricultural pursuits. They returned in the fall, accompanied by James Auchiah, the sixth and final student. Shortly thereafter, Lois Smoky withdrew from the program and returned home. Dr. Oscar Jacobson arranged for the Kiowa artists' paintings to be exhibited in 1928 at the First International Art Exposition - formally titled the 1928 International Art Congress (of the International Federation for Art Education, Drawing and Art Applied to Industries)- in Prague, Czechoslovakia. In 1929, Kiowa Art, a portfolio of the artists' paintings was published in France.

Biographical Note
Biographical Note
Stephen Mopope also known as Qued Koi (Painted Robe) was born on August 27, 1898 near Red Stone Baptist Church on the Kiowa Reservation. He attended St. Patrick's Mission School in Anadarko, Oklahoma. He died on February 3, 1974.
Biographical Note
Spencer Asah also known as Lallo (Little Boy) was born between 1905 and 1910 near Carnegie, Oklahoma. He attended various government Indian schools and St. Patrick's Mission School, Anadarko, Oklahoma. He died in 1954.
Biographical Note
James Auchiah was born in 1906 near Medicine Park, Oklahoma. He attended St. Patrick's Mission School in Anadarko, Oklahoma. He died on December 28, 1974.
Biographical Note
Jack Hokeah was born in 1902 in western Oklahoma. He attended St. Patrick's Mission School in Anadarko, Oklahoma. He died on December 14, 1969.
Biographical Note
Monroe Tsatoke also known as Tsa To Kee (Hunting Horse) was born September 29, 1904 at Saddle Mountain, Oklahoma. He attended Rainy Mountain Indian School near Carnegie, Oklahoma and Bacone College. He died on February 3, 1937.
Biographical Note
Lois Smokey also known as Bougetah (Of the Dawn) was born in 1907, near Anadarko, Oklahoma. She died on February 1, 1981.

Custodial History
A note dated 1970 indicates that the color plates were hanging in the office of the Chairman of the Department of Anthropology, having previously been displayed in the office of the Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology. They were later removed from display and designated NAA MS 7536. No information is available regarding their acquisition.

Using the Collection
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Conditions Governing Access
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Preferred Citation
MS 7536 Pochoir prints of ledger drawings by the Kiowa Five, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

Related Materials
The National Anthropological Archives holds a complete set of prints published in 1979 in MS 2008-15 Kiowa Indian Art: Watercolor Paintings in Color by the Indians of Oklahoma and holds related prints in the Acee Blue Eagle collection, including the original painting on which Plate 27 is based.

More Information
Local Numbers
Local Numbers
NAA MS 7536
NAA INV 09064600-09066900

Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Works of art Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Kiowa Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Watercolors Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ledger drawings Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
North America Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Anthropological Archives
Museum Support Center
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland, Maryland 20746