National Museum of African American History and Culture

Philip G. Freelon Architectural Archive

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAAHC.A2017.51
Creators:
Freelon, Philip G., 1953-2019
Dates:
bulk 1939-2017
Languages:
English
.
Physical Description:
5.1 Cubic feet
Repository:

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
The Philip G. Freelon Architectural Archival Collection documents the life and career of architect, educator, cultural heritage preservation advocate and artist Philip G. Freelon. The collection highlights his distinguished career from its inception to his role as the "architect of record" for the National Museum of African American History and Culture. Freelon was one of the leading African American architects of his generation and he created a focus designing and constructing buildings that paid reverence to African Americans and other underrepresented communities. This collection is comprised of business records, photographic materials, ephemera, correspondence, architectural drawings, and clippings.

Arrangement
Arrangement
The materials in this collection have been separated into seven series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content and chronology. Within each series and sub-series, the folders are organized as close to the collection's original order as when it was acquired.

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
Philip Goodwin Freelon was born March 26, 1953, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Allan Freelon, Jr. and Elizabeth Neal Freelon. Freelon was greatly influenced by his grandfather, Allan Freelon Sr., a notable Harlem Renaissance visual artist, educator, and civil rights activist. His grandfather's values and artistry inspired him to create a career that focused on creating historical and cultural spaces in African American communities. Freelon attended high school at the former predominantly white elite all-boys school, Central High School located in upper North Philadelphia from 1967 to 1971. His attendance at this school during of the Civil Rights Movement afforded him the unique experience that inspired him to attend a historically Black college (HBCU). Freelon selected Hampton Institute (Hampton University) to develop his veneration of the composition and design of the buildings that held cultural and artistic treasures. Located in the Tidewater area of Virginia, Hampton was renowned among HBCUs for its architecture program. His professor and mentor at Hampton, John Spencer, pushed Freelon academically as he moved easily through the school's curriculum. After two years at Hampton, Spencer helped Freelon transition to a more challenging program at North Carolina State University (NCSU) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Freelon graduated in 1975 with a bachelor's in environmental design in architecture.
Later in the fall of 1975, Freelon enrolled at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to pursue a master's in architecture. During the summers, Freelon worked with one of former his NC State professors at the architectural firm of John D. Latimer and Associates. After graduating from MIT in 1977, Freelon returned to North Carolina to take his Architecture Registration Examination (ARE), becoming the firm's youngest person to receive licensure. He also began teaching classes at his alma mater, NC State. It was there that Freelon met his future wife, Nnenna Pierce. Pierce, a Massachusetts native was attending Simmons College in Boston at the time. The connection was immediate, and the pair was married in 1979 and welcomed their first son, Deen in 1980. After a brief employment for a large Texas firm 3/D International, Freelon returned to Durham to join O'Brien Atkins Associates. He was the firm's youngest partner, eventually serving as principal and vice president of architecture. Freelon worked on a wide variety of projects throughout the state including learning centers, university buildings, churches, and parking garages. Along with Freelon's budding career, his family was expanding as well. Phil and Nnenna welcomed their daughter Maya in 1982 and their son, Pierce in 1983. During this time, Freelon was being highly recognized for his work. The American of Institute of Architects (AIA) awarded him the Honor Award for his design of Terminal 2 of the Raleigh-Durham International Airport, which has since been rebuilt.
By the end of the decade, Freelon and his wife Nnenna needed a change of pace. Nnenna pursued a professional career in music while Phil took a break from his career to expand his skillset and reinforce his intellectual approach to design. In 1989, Freelon was granted the Loeb Fellowship for one year of independent study at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design. He also pursued a longtime hobby of furniture design, calling the practice "small architecture". He received industry awards like first prize in the PPG Industries, Inc. Furniture Design Competition as well as AIA Honor Award for conference table designs. With a year away from the field to clarify his vision, Freelon opened his own firm, simply titled, the Freelon Group in 1990. Beginning as a one-man operation, the Freelon Group grew to become one of the largest African American owned architectural firms in the country with over 50 employees, forty percent of which were women, and thirty percent were people of color. With freedom within his own firm, Freelon focused on designing learning centers, libraries and museums and vowed to never build anything that did not bring cultural and intellectual value to a community.
Over the next twenty years, Freelon would assert himself as a force in designing notable cultural institutions and community-driven projects in and around the country including the Sonja Haynes Stone Center at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill (Chapel Hill, NC), Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History & Culture (Baltimore, MD), Museum of African Diaspora (San Francisco, CA), Harvey B. Gantt for African American Arts and Culture (Charlotte, NC), the Anacostia and Tenley-Friendship branches of the District of Columbia Public Library , National Center for Civil Rights and Human Rights (Atlanta, GA), Mississippi Civil Rights Museum (Jackson, MS) and Emancipation Park (Houston, TX). Alongside his architectural career, Freelon served as a lecturer and adjunct professor at several colleges and universities including North Carolina State University, Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), University of Maryland College Park, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Syracuse University, and the Florence, Italy program at Kent State University. Freelon was awarded a full-time appointment as professor of Professional Practice at MIT in 2008. The Professional Practice (4.222) course was a requirement for the master's in architecture and he used examples from his extensive career and personal experience to illustrate legal, ethical, and management concepts. Nnenna's music career was also thriving. She would go on to record twelve albums and be nominated for six Grammys. This fusion of education, the arts, and music inspired another generation of Freelons: their son, Pierce Freelon is a hip-hop artist, educator, and political activist; daughter Maya Freelon is a visual artist; and son Deen Freelon is a professor.
In 2001, George W. Bush established a commission to create a new museum on the National Mall. Freelon wanted to enter his firm to participate in the international design competition. Freelon would partner with famed African American New York City architect, J. Max Bond, Jr. and by 2006 the two officially formed the Freelon Bond Architects.The Freelon Bond group submitted their proposal and soon after were elected to create programming and pre-design work for the museum. When the official design competition for the museum was announced in 2008, UK-based architect David Adjaye joined the team as the lead designer, and along with the partnering firm SmithGroup, the new architectural team became Freelon Adjaye Bond/SmithGroup. The three black architects combined a variety of distinctive elements from Africa and the Americas to create the building's unique, historically significant design. The Freelon Group served as the "architect of record" and were responsible for ensuring that key design ideas were upheld. Freelon and key firm members such as Zena Howard were active as on-site project managers during the museum's construction process to certify that the building would be developed according to plan. Freelon, Adjaye, and Bond were tasked with taking the collective history of the African American experience-- generations of pain, triumph, and perseverance-- and forming it into a structure. The team looked to African sources, such as Yoruban architecture, for inspiration. They sought to connect the building's design to the geographic and cultural roots of African Americans. Their design choices also reference the contributions of enslaved and free black metalworkers made to the landscape of the American South. Their goal was to make the museum an extension of its contents, and an expression of the stories told inside. By the groundbreaking for NMAAHC in 2012, Freelon had been appointed to the U.S. Commission of the Fine Arts by President Barack Obama. In an effort to broaden his resources and expand his firm, The Freelon Group merged with Perkins & Will, a firm originating in Chicago that grew to have offices across the United States. Freelon was appointed the managing director and later lead design director at the firm's North Carolina offices in Charlotte and Durham in 2014. By the next year, Freelon understood that his work in architecture and education was a necessary voice to preserve, which he did through donation of the bulk of his personal papers to his alma mater, NC State University. The year 2016 proved to be a year of triumph for Freelon as NMAAHC opened its doors on September 24th to much jubilation and celebration. That same year, Freelon's legacy was further cemented as the Phil Freelon Fellowship Fund was established at Harvard University Graduate School of Design, a fellowship designed to broaden opportunities for African Americans and other underrepresented communities in architecture and design.
Unfortunately, this triumphant year was met with difficulty as Freelon was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive disease that affects the nervous system. He would continue to work and lecture for the next two years until it became too challenging. One of those projects was the renovation and opening of The NorthStar Church of the Arts in early 2019. A passion project with his wife and son, Pierce, a former church was renovated and repurposed as an arts and cultural space for all. This space was created in an effort to support the Durham cultural community as it began to feel the effects of gentrification. When Freelon lost his battle with ALS on July 9, 2019, in his home in Durham, North Carolina, the family requested that in lieu of flowers that donations be sent to the NorthStar Church to continue the center's mission and Phil's dream to give back to the Durham community.
Historical Timeline
1953
Philip Goodwin Freelon was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Allan Freelon Jr. and Elizabeth Neal Freelon.
1971
Freelon graduated from Central High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and entered School of Architecture, Hampton University in Hampton, Virginia as a design student.
1973
Freelon transferred to College of Design at the North Carolina State University in Raleigh.
1975
Graduated with a Bachelor's in Environmental Design in Architecture from NC State University. He received the American Institute of Architects (AIA) Book Award for Outstanding Work in Architectural Design. In the fall, he began his master's program in architecture at MIT.
1976
Began working as aide for architectural firm, John D. Latimer and Associates.
1977
Graduated with a Master's in Architecture and Design from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT.)
1978
Freelon became youngest architect to pass the North Carolina Architecture Registration Exam. Freelon started teaching at North Carolina State University.
1979
Married Chinyere "Nnenna" Pierce. Freelon began working for, 3/D International in Houston, Texas.
1980
Son Deen Freelon was born.
1981
Freelon returned to Durham, NC to join O'Brien Atkins Associates as the firm's youngest partner.
1982
Daughter Maya Freelon was born.
1983
Son Pierce Freelon was born.
1989-1990
Received Loeb Fellowship for independent study at Harvard University. Freelon received AIA Honor Award for American Airlines Terminal 2 at Raleigh-Durham Airport, NC (RDU).
1990
Freelon left O'Brien Atkins Associates to open his own firm The Freelon Group.
1991
Won first prize in the PPG Furniture Design Competition.
1992
Won the AIA Honor Award for Conference Table Designs.
2001
Won the AIA Firm Award for The Freelon Group and the AIA Design Award for Parking Structure, RDU Airport. Began attending meetings of President George W. Bush's commission on new National Mall museum dedicated to African American history and culture.
2003
Freelon merged his firm with New York architect Max Bond to create Freelon Bond Architects.
2004
Sonja Haynes Stone Center at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill (Chapel Hill, NC) was completed.
2005
Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History & Culture (Baltimore, MD) and Museum of African Diaspora (San Francisco, CA) were both completed.
2008
UK-based architect David Adjaye and Washington, DC based architecture firm, Smithgroup joined the team, creating the Freelon Adjaye Bond Group/SmithGroup Freelon began teaching at MIT's school of Architecture and Design.
2009
Freelon Adjaye Bond/Smithgroup won the official design for the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC). Harvey B. Gantt for African American Arts and Culture (Charlotte, NC) was completed.
2010
Anacostia branch of the District of Columbia Public Library (Washington, DC) was completed.
2011
Tenley-Friendship branch of the District of Columbia Public Library (Washington, DC) was completed.
2012
Construction began on NMAAHC.
2014
The Freelon Group merged with Perkins & Will, a much larger architectural firm. Freelon became managing director and lead design director of the North Carolina branches in Durham and Charlotte. National Center for Civil Rights and Human Rights (Atlanta, GA) was completed.
2016
Freelon was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
2017
Mississippi Civil Rights Museum (Jackson, MS) and Emancipation Park (Houston, TX) were completed.
2019
Freelon died in his home in Durham, North Carolina at age 66 on July 9.

Administration
Author
Alana Donocoff, Ja-Zette Marshburn, and Ronald Jorgenson
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Philip G. Freelon.
Processing Information
Collection processed, arranged, and described by Alana Donocoff, Ja-Zette Marshburn and Ronald Jorgenson in 2021.

Bibliography
Bibliography
Czarnecki, John. "Illuminating a Culture Through Architecture." Contract. October 2016, Vol. 57, Iss. 8, p. 18.
Genzlinger, Neil "Philip Freelon, African-American Museum Architect, Dies at 66." The New York Times. July 10, 2019. (accessed October 2021). https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/10/arts/philip-freelon-dead.html.
Hunter-Pillion, M. (Ed.). Phil Freelon: An American Story. North Carolina Museum of History. (accessed October 2021). https://www.ncmuseumofhistory.org/a-storied-past/phil-freelon.
"New Faculty: Philip Freelon: Award-Winning Architect Appointed Professor of Practice." MIT School of Architecture + Planning. April 2009. (accessed October 2021). https://sap.mit.edu/article/standard/new-faculty-philip-freelon.
"In Memoriam Philip Goodwin Freelon, 1952-2019." African American Design Nexus. (accessed October 2021). https://aadn.gsd.harvard.edu/people/phil-freelon/.
Lakin, Jan. "Dream Team." Contract. July 2009, Vol. 51 Issue 7, p62-63.
Rowell, Charles Henry, and Philip G. Freelon. "An Interview with Philip G. Freelon." Callaloo. 38, no. 4 (2015): 752-761.
School of Architecture and Planning. "Philip Freelon, Professor of the Practice and Champion of Diversity in Architecture, Dies at 66." MIT News: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. July 15, 2009. (accessed October 2021). https://news.mit.edu/2019/philip-reelon-professor-practice-champion-diversity- architecture-dies-0715.
Schudel, Matt. "Phil Freelon, Architect Who Helped Design Smithsonian's African American Museum, Dies at 66." The Washington Post. July 9, 2019. (accessed October 2021). https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/obituaries/phil-freelon-architect-who-helped- design-smithsonians-african-american-museum-dies-at-66/2019/07/09/00bcb822-a280- 11e9-bd56-eac6bb02d01d_story.html.
Wachter, Paul. "Phil Freelon, America's Most Prominent Black Architect, Designs for the Culture." The Undefeated. February 12, 2019. (accessed October 2021). https://theundefeated.com/features/phil-freelon-americas-most-prominent-black-architect-designs-smithsonian-african-american-history-museum-atlanta-center-for-civil-rights/.
Welton, J. Michael. "Phil Freelon: Drawing and the Language of Architecture." International Review of African American Art. 2015. Vol. 25, Iss. 2. p. 14-24.
Williamson, Don. "The Profound, Introspective and Supremely Talented, Nnenna Freelon." Jazz Review. (accessed October 2021).http://jazzreview.com/articledetails.cfm?ID=544.

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation
Philip G. Freelon Archival Collection, 1939-2017. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
Conditions Governing Access
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Conditions Governing Use
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.

Related Materials
Phil Freelon Papers, 1975-2019 at North Carolina State University Libraries.

More Information

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Architecture Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Business Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Construction Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Correspondence Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Entrepreneurship Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Local and Regional Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
North Carolina -- United States Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
United States of America -- North Carolina -- Durham County -- Durham Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Suffolk County -- Boston Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
United States of America -- New York -- New York Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Design Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Education Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Museums Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Freelon, Allan Randall, 1895-1960 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Adjaye, David, 1966- Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Bond, J. Max, Jr. Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
National Organization of Minority Architects (U.S.) Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
North Carolina Board of Architecture Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
American Institute of Architects Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Freelon Group Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Freelon Adjaye Bond/SmithGroup Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hampton University (Va.) Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Harvard University Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. School of Architecture Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Perkins & Will Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Freelon Bond Architects Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
PPG Industries, Inc. Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
NorthStar Church of the Arts Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Museum of African American History and Culture
Washington, D.C. 20004
NMAAHC-Archives@si.edu