Records of the Field Offices for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Digitized Content

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAAHC.FB.M1907
Dates:
1865–1872
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
65 Reels
Repository:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 65 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1907. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Mississippi headquarters for the Assistant Commissioner and his staff officers and the subordinate field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872. The files contain some pre–Bureau record series, dated 1863–1864, that were created by military commanders and U. S. Treasury agents who dealt with refugees and freedmen during the Civil War. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, containing materials that include letters sent and received, monthly reports, registers of complaints, and other records relating to freedmen's claims and bounty payments.

Records Description
Records Description
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this publication were originally arranged by the Freedmen's Bureau by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.
The volumes consist of letters and endorsements sent and received, press copies of letters sent, registers of letters received, letters and orders received, registers of freedmen issued rations, special orders and circulars issued, registers of bounty claimants, and monthly reports forwarded to the Assistant Commissioner. The unbound documents consist of letters and orders received, unregistered letters and narrative reports received, special orders and circulars issued, and general orders and circulars received. The unbound records also contain monthly reports; amnesty oaths; applications of freedmen for rations; and records relating to claims, court trials, property restoration, and homesteads.
A few series were created in 1863–1864, prior to formation of the Bureau, by Union military commanders and U. S. Treasury agents, and included in the Bureau records. Some of the volumes contain more than one type of record, reflecting a common recording practice of clerks and staff officers in that period. In Series 2.2, for example, the Registers of Letters Received also contain a register of criminal cases maintained by the judge advocate of the district of Vicksburg. Researchers should read carefully the records descriptions and arrangements in the finding aid to make full use of these records.

Historical Note
Historical Note
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1907.]
HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self–sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.
The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents, or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts.
The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non–Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, letters were often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.
In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.
An act of Congress, approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.
For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870, the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. The records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.
THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN MISSISSIPPI
ORGANIZATION
The first Assistant Commissioner of Mississippi was Col. Samuel Thomas, who established his headquarters at Vicksburg in June 1865. Before his appointment to the Freedmen's Bureau, Colonel Thomas served in Mississippi within Chaplain John Eaton's Freedmen's Department of the Department of Tennessee. The functions and activities of the Freedmen's Department in Mississippi were similar to those of the later Bureau. Although the size and organization of the Mississippi office varied from time to time, the Assistant Commissioner's staff usually included an acting adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, and a surgeon in chief, a superintendent of education, a disbursing officer, and a chief commissary of subsistence.
At the start of operations in Mississippi, officers subordinate to the Assistant Commissioner were organized in a hierarchical manner. The state of Mississippi and the parishes of Madison, Carroll, Concordia, and Tenas in northeastern Louisiana were divided into the Western, Southern, and Northern Districts, with an acting assistant commissioner in charge of each district. Subassistant commissioners in charge of subdistricts, which usually encompassed several counties, reported directly to the acting assistant commissioners, who, in turn, reported to the Assistant Commissioner. In January 1866, the Louisiana parishes were placed within the jurisdiction of the Assistant Commissioner for Louisiana. In March 1866, the three districts were discontinued; thereafter, the subassistant commissioners or the civilian agents in charge of subdistricts reported directly to the Assistant Commissioner.
Colonel Thomas was succeeded by three other officers who acted as both Assistant Commissioners and military commanders in Mississippi. In April 1866, Gen. Thomas J. Wood was appointed Assistant Commissioner for Mississippi; he was succeeded in January 1867 by Gen. Alvan C. Gillem. In March 1869, Gen. Adelbert Ames was appointed Assistant Commissioner; he established his headquarters at Jackson and supervised the closing of the office of the Assistant Commissioner. Gen. Ames's appointment was revoked on April 30, 1869. The major subordinate field offices for the Bureau at Mississippi included those with headquarters at Jackson, Lauderdale, Natchez, and Vicksburg. For a list of known Mississippi subordinate field office personnel and their dates of service, see the Appendix.
ACTIVITIES
The major activities of the Freedmen's Bureau in Mississippi generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau issued rations to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, worked with benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, provided assistance in legalizing freedmen marriages, and assisted, to a limited extent, in locating land for freedmen.
The Freedmen's Bureau sought to prevent widespread starvation and destitution in Mississippi by issuing more than 180,000 rations to both whites and blacks in 1865, and 170,000 rations to blacks and white refugees in 1866. Also in 1866, Commissioner Howard ordered an end to rations except for freedmen in Bureau hospitals and orphanages. By December 1868, the Bureau's relief efforts in Mississippi ceased.1
The regulation of written labor agreements between planters and freedmen was a major concern of the Freedmen's Bureau in Mississippi. In General Orders Number 5 (July 29, 1865), Assistant Commissioner Thomas outlined the rules governing the free labor system in the state. He specified that all contracts between freedmen and planters must be in writing and approved by the Bureau. Contracts were not to exceed one year, and any contracts involving wages must allow for food, clothing, and medical attention. The Bureau settled disputes. Between 1865 and 1866, numerous freedmen complained of inadequate compensation for their labor. Freedmen who worked for "Shares" (for a portion of the crop) found themselves in debt to planters at the end of the season, and thus forced to contract for the next year to pay their obligations. Blacks who worked for wages were frequently cheated of their pay and in some instances, like those who worked for shares, were "Driven Off" once the crops were harvested. Assistant Commissioner T. J. Wood, who replaced Thomas in 1867, instituted a plan by which freedmen contracted with planters for a portion of the crop. Freedmen were to receive one–third of the crop, and planters were to supply land, stock, tools and food. Clothing, medicines, and the cost of rations provided to children too young to work would be taken from the freedmen's share of the crop at the end of the year. By 1868, a modified version of the "Share System" became the most prevalent kind of labor agreement in Mississippi. Freedmen who worked land provided by the planters paid a stipulated rent or a certain amount of cotton or corn for the use of the land. By and large, this labor arrangement allowed freedmen to rely less on credit from planters and more on their own resources for supplies.2
Safeguarding rights and securing justice for freedmen was also of great concern to the Bureau. Following the Civil War, several Southern states, including Mississippi, enacted a series of laws commonly known as "Black Codes," which restricted the rights and legal status of freedmen. Under Mississippi law, for example, blacks could not rent or lease land outside cities and towns, thus restricting their ability to become independent farmers. Freedmen who were not lawfully employed by the second Monday of each January were considered vagrants, and as such, were subject to fines and imprisonment. Freedmen were prohibited from owning firearms without a license, and black children who were deemed orphans could be bound out as apprentices without their parents' permission. Assistant Commissioner Thomas issued General Orders Number 8 (September 20, 1865), which offered Mississippi judicial officials the opportunity to try freedmen cases in local courts (without interference from the Bureau) if they would afford blacks the same "Rights and Privileges" as whites. In October 1865, after Mississippi officials agreed to accept his offer, Thomas ordered that all cases relating to freedmen were to be handled by Mississippi judges and magistrates. However, it was not until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 that the Freedmen's Bureau in Mississippi was able to achieve some degree of equal justice for freedmen.3
From July 1865 to July 1866, the educational activity of the Bureau in Mississippi was under the direction of Dr. Joseph Warren. Following his resignation, the duties of the superintendent of education were performed by Assistant Commissioners for eight months, until H. R. Pease assumed the duties of the office on May 18, 1867. Pease found that some 63 teachers were employed in the major towns and villages by various educational and benevolent associations, and that another 31 teachers, who received aid from the Bureau, were employed by freedmen. Many of the schools, however, lacked adequate buildings, and in schools in areas where the black population was small, freedmen were unable to support teachers' salaries. Teachers and trustees had difficulty collecting tuition from pupils, and, with no teaching standards, some teachers were unfit to teach. The Bureau cooperated with educational and benevolent societies, and encouraged freedmen to contribute to the support of their schools by paying a monthly tuition. By December 1868, the number of pupils attending freedmen schools increased from over 2,000 in October 1867 to more than 6,000, and the number of freedmen schools increased from 47 to 115. Teachers commissioned by educational societies increased from 13 to 23; and teachers supported by freedmen and the Bureau went from 34 to 101. Assistant Commissioner Gillem reported that during the year ending October 1868, more whites were beginning to take an active role in assisting blacks in building schools and supporting teachers.4
The Bureau in Mississippi was very active in documenting and solemnizing marriages of freedmen. Continuing a practice started by military officials and civilians during the Civil War, Assistant Commissioner Samuel Thomas issued Circular Number 1 (July 3, 1865) authorizing his officers to keep a record of marriages of persons of color and gave instruction on how to maintain marriage registers. Returns of marriage certificates forwarded to the Office of the Commissioner by Assistant Commissioner Thomas include such information as the color of persons marrying, complexion of parents, and the number of years the couple had been living together as man and wife. The certificates also include data about the number of years the couple lived with another person, how they were separated, and the number of children by a previous connection. Marriage records in the records of the Mississippi Office of the Assistant Commissioner provide similar information. The registers for Davis Bend, Vicksburg, and Natchez, Mississippi, document the registration of more than 4,600 freedmen from Mississippi and northern Louisiana. Over half of the soldiers registering marriages for Natchez were members of the 6th Mississippi Heavy Artillery of the U. S. Colored Troops. Nearly all of the soldiers registering marriages for Davis Bend served with the 64th Colored Infantry. The Mississippi subdistrict field office also registered freedmen marriages or issued licenses and certificates in the subdistricts of Brookhaven, Columbus, Davis Bend, Goodman, Grenada, Jackson, and Pass Christian.5
The Southern Homestead Act (14 Stat. 66), approved by Congress on June 21, 1866, made available for public settlement 46 million acres of public lands in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Nearly 5 million acres of this Federal land was located in Mississippi. Because the act specifically prohibited discrimination against applicants due to race, it offered an opportunity for Mississippi freedmen and others to become landowners. Generally, the Freedmen's Bureau assisted interested freedmen through "Locating Agents" in finding plots, and provided them with one–month subsistence, free transportation to their prospective tracts of land, and seeds for the initial planting. In Mississippi, as in other public land states in the South, most freedmen were under labor agreements at the time of the act and were unable to take advantage of land opportunities. Because Mississippi had no land office, Bureau officials were unable to secure maps and other records relating to the quality and location of public lands in the state. By 1868, feeling that much of the public land for Mississippi was of poor quality and "Unfit for Agricultural Purposes," Bvt. Brig. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, who replaced Thomas Wood in early 1867 as Mississippi Assistant Commissioner, made no effort to survey public lands. A land office was eventually opened in August 1868. By then, however, the Freedmen's Bureau, for all practical purposes, had been discontinued.6
ENDNOTES
1 William C. Harris, Presidential Reconstruction in Mississippi (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1967), p. 84; Annual Reports of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi, October 10, 1867, p. 20, and December 12, 1868, pp. 11 – 12, Records of the Office of the Commissioner, Record Group 105, NARA.
2 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1256, pp. 167 – 168; Annual Reports, Mississippi, October 10, 1867, pp. 4 – 11, and December 12, 1868, pp. 3 – 4.
3 Donald G. Nieman, "The Freedmen's Bureau and the Mississippi Black Code," The Journal of Mississippi History XL, No. 2 (May 1978): pp. 92 – 99; House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 101 – 102.
4 Annual Reports, Mississippi, October 10, 1867, pp. 27 – 34; see also, the report for December 12, 1868, [pp. 12 – 17].
5 For a discussion of Mississippi marriage registers, see Herbert G. Gutman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1790–1925 (New York: Vintage Books, 1976), pp. 18 – 24. The Mississippi marriage registers are reproduced in National Archives Microfilm Publication M826, Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869, Roll 42. Compiled service records for the 6th Mississippi Heavy Artillery, USCT, have been reproduced on microfilm publication M1818, Compiled Military Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served with the United States Colored Troops: Artillery Organizations, Rolls 109 – 133. For returns of marriage certificates forwarded to the Office of the Commissioner, see microfilm publication M1875, Marriage Records of the Office of the Commissioner, Washington Headquarters of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1861–1869, Rolls 2 and 3.
6 Warren Hoffinagle, "The Southern Homestead Act: Its Origins and Operation," The Historian; A Journal of History, XXXII, No. 4 (1970): 618 – 620.

Administration
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.

Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Mississippi
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Mississippi
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices in Mississippi. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment–related records.
ABERDEEN
Sept.–Nov. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner Stuart Eldridge
Dec. 1867–Feb. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner William K. White (Agent at Okolona)
BROOKHAVEN
Mar.–Apr. 1866
Subcommissioner Z. B. Chatfield
Apr.–June 1866
Subcommissioner Robert P. Gardner
June 1866–Apr. 1867
Subcommissioner W. Eldridge
Apr.–July 1867
Subcommissioner W. Eldridge
July–Nov. 1867
Subcommissioner E. C. Gilbrath
Dec. 1867–Mar. 1868
Agent A. K. Long
Mar.–Oct. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner E. E. Platt
Oct.–Nov. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner George Haller
Nov.–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner John D. Moore
COLUMBUS
Mar. 1866–Mar. 1867
Subcommissioner George S. Smith
Mar.–May 1867
Subassistant Commissioner George S. Smith
May–June 1867
Subassistant Commissioner W. G. Sprague
June–Aug. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner George S. Smith
Aug.–Dec. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner William K. White
Dec. 1867–Jan. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Bartholomew
Jan.–Mar. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner James Kelly
Mar.–Sept. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Bartholomew
Sept.–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner James Kelly
CORINTH
Mar.–Aug. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner John D. Moore
Aug.–Sept. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner George S. Smith
Oct. 1867–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Loyd Wheaton
EAST PASCAGOULA
Feb.–Mar. 1866
Subassistant Commissioner R. D. Mitchell
July 1866–Nov. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner George W. Corliss
Mar.–Apr. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Allen P. Huggins (Agent at McKutt)
Apr.–Oct. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Allen P. Huggins (Agent at Greenwood)
Oct.–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner E. E. Platt (Subassistant Commissioner at Greenwood)
FRIARS POINT
May–Oct. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Eldridge
Nov. 1868–Jan. 1869
Subassistant Commissioner D. M. White
GOODMAN
July–Aug. 1867
Agent H. W. Barry
Sept.–Nov. 1867
Agent Charles A. Shields
GREENVILLE
Mar.–Apr. 1867
Subcommissioner William L. Ryan
Sept.–Dec. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner William L. Tidball
Dec.–1867–May 1868 and May–July 1868
Agent Thad K. Preuss
July–Aug. 1868
Agent Andrew Thomas
Sept.–Dec. 1868
Agent Samuel Goozee
GRENADA
Mar.–Apr. 1866
Subcommissioner S. Marvin
Apr.–Oct. 1866
Subcommissioner Silas May
Oct. 1866–July 1867
Assistant Subcommissioner James N. Shipley
Aug.–Sept. 1867
Assistant Subcommissioner D. M. White
Oct. 1867–Feb. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner William Shields
Feb.–Mar. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Charles Walden
Mar.–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner William Wedemeyker
HOLLY SPRINGS
Sept.–Dec. 1867
Subcommissioner John Power
Dec. 1867–Jan. 1868
Agent H. H. Service
Jan.–Oct. 1868
Subcommissioner John Power
Oct.–Dec. 1868
Clerk H. A. Cooper
JACKSON — Acting Assistant Commissioner of the Northern District of Mississippi
July 1865–Mar. 1866
Acting Assistant Commissioner of the Northern District of Mississippi R. S. Donaldson
JACKSON
Jan.–Mar. 1866
Subcommissioner Thomas Smith
Mar.–Nov. 1866
Subcommissioner H. Gardner
Dec. 1866–Feb. 1867
Subcommissioner H. R. Williams
Feb.–Aug. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner Robert P. Gardner
Aug.–Dec. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner Samuel S. Sumner
Dec. 1867–Jan. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Allen P. Heuggins
Feb.–Dec. 1868
Agent Joseph B. Holt
LAKE STATION
Sept.–Oct. 1867
Agent Charles Walden
Nov. 1867–Feb. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner George W. Corliss
Feb.–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner George W. Corliss (also at Forest)
LAUDERDALE
Apr.–July 1866
Subassistant Commissioner Henry E. Rainals
July 1866–Feb. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner D. M. White
Mar. 1866–Aug. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner Joseph W. Sunderland
Aug. 1867–Feb. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner John D. Moore
Feb.–Aug. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner John D. Moore (at Meridian)
Sept.–Oct. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner John D. Moore (at DeKalb)
Feb.–Apr. 1868
Agent John D. Moore
Apr.–Dec. 1868
Agent O. C. French
LEXINGTON
Aug.–Sept. 1867
Agent H. W. Barry
Dec. 1867
Agent C. A. Shields
LOUISVILLE
Sept. 1867–Feb. 1868
Agent John Williams
Feb.–July 1868
Agent John Williams (at Durant)
July–Sept. 1868
Agent H. H. Service (at Durant)
MACON
Oct.–Dec. 1865
Subcommissioner Louis H. Gest
July–Sept. 1867
Agent William H. Ross
Oct. 1867–Dec. 1868
Agent George S. Smith
MAGNOLIA
Aug.–Nov. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner York A. Woodward
Dec. 1867–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner (also at Woodville)
MERIDIAN
Aug. 1865
Subcommissioner C. W. Clark
Sept.–Nov. 1865
Subcommissioner E. L. Buckwalter
Jan.–July 1866
Subcommissioner John J. Knox
June–Aug. 1866
Subcommissioner James W. Sunderland
July–Dec. 1866
Subcommissioner Henry E. Rainals
Jan.–Feb. 1867
Subcommissioner James W. Sunderland
July–Sept. 1867
Subcommissioner Thomas H. Norton
Sept. 1867–Feb. 1868
Agent Andrew Thomas
Feb.–July 1868
Agent (also Agent at Hickory)
NATCHEZ, Southern District of Mississippi
Mar.–July 1865
Provost Marshal of Freedmen George D. Reynolds
July 1865–Mar. 1866
Acting Assistant Commissioner George D. Reynolds
NATCHEZ
Mar. 1866
Subcommissioner A. Kemper
July 1866–June 1867
Subcommissioner E. E. Platt
July 1867–Apr. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner James Biddle
Apr.–Aug. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner George Haller
Sept. 1868–Jan. 1869
Subassistant Commissioner Charles A. Wikoff
OKOLONA
Aug.–Sept. 1865
Subcommissioner J. M. Buel
Jan.–Mar. 1866
Subcommissioner W. F. DuBois
Nov.–Dec. 1867
Subcommissioner W. H. Eldridge (See Tupelo)
Dec. 1867–Feb. 1868
Subcommissioner William K. White (See Aberdeen)
OXFORD
May–June 1867
Subassistant Commissioner Edward B. Rossiter
June–Oct. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner Thad. K. Preuss
PASS CHRISTIAN
Feb. 1866
Subcommissioner A. L. Hemingway
Apr.–June 1866
Subcommissioner John D. Moore
June 1866–Feb. 1867
Subcommissioner Robert P. Gardner
Feb.–Mar. 1867
Subcommissioner John D. Moore
Mar.–July 1867
Subassistant Commissioner George W. Corliss
July–Sept. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner Charles Hyatt
Nov. 1867
Agent M. Lathrup (Agent)
PHILADELPHIA
Sept. 1867–Jan. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Robert P. Gardner
PORT GIBSON
May–July 1865
Provost Marshal of Freedmen at Rodney D. F. Hart
July–Aug. 1865
Provost Marshal of Freedmen at Claiborne County D. F. Hart
Sept.–Nov. 1865
Subcommissioner H. O. Stavis
Nov. 1865–Feb. 1866
Subcommissioner James M. Babcock
Feb. 1866
Subcommissioner J. T. Hanna
June–Sept. 1867
Agent A. S. Alden
Dec. 1867–May 1868
Agent W. H. Eldridge (at Port Gibson) (See Tupelo)
Dec. 1868
Agent A. K. Long
SARDIS
Dec. 1867
Agent D. S. Harriman (also at Panola)
Dec. 1867–July 1868
Agent M. Lathrop (at Panola)
Aug. 1868
Agent M. Lathrop (at Sardis)
Sept. 1868
Clerk H. A. Cooper
Oct.–Dec. 1868
Clerk James H. Pierce
SKIPWITHS LANDING
Aug.–Oct. 1865
Subcommissioner S. G. Swain
Nov. 1865–Feb. 1866
Subcommissioner O. B. Foster
STARKVILLE
Sept. 1867–Feb. 1868
Agent Charles A. Sullivan
Mar.–July 1868
Agent C. L. Currier Coss
TUPELO
July–Nov. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Eldridge
Nov.–Dec. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Eldridge (at Okolona)
Dec. 1867–May 1868
Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Eldridge (at Port Gibson)
Aug.–Dec. 1868
Agent H. A. Kelly
VICKSBURG, Western District of Mississippi
June 1865
Provost Marshal of Freedmen George D. Reynolds
June 1865–Feb. 1866
Assistant Commissioner J. H. Weber
VICKSBURG
Feb.–Mar. 1866
Subcommissioner S. G. Swain
May 1866
Subcommissioner J. K. Byers Fielding
July–Oct. 1866
Subcommissioner Neale George
Jan.–Mar. 1867
Subcommissioner W. Corliss
Apr.–July 1867
Subassistant Commissioner J. H. Chapman
July 1867–Feb. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner E. E. Platt
Mar.–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner J. H. Chapman
VICKSBURG
Sept.–Oct. 1864
Special Agent of the Treasury Department T. C. Callicot
Oct. 1864–July 1865
Special Agent of the Treasury Department C. A. Montross
WINCHESTER
Aug.–Dec. 1865
Subcommissioner William R. Gallian
May–Oct. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner J. Whitney
WOODVILLE
Jan.–Feb. 1866
Agent William R. Gallian
Aug.–Nov. 1867
Assistant Subcommissioner George Haller
Dec. 1867–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subcommissioner (See Magnolia)
YAZOO CITY
June–July 1865
Provost Marshal of Freedmen Ozro B. Foster
July–Oct. 1865
Subcommissioner Ozro B. Foster
Oct.–Nov. 1865
Subcommissioner Charles W. Clarke
Dec. 1865–Feb. 1866
Subcommissioner Leonard P. Woodworth
Mar.–May 1867
Subassistant Commissioner D. M. White
May–Oct. 1867
Agent Alan P. Huggins
Oct. 1867–Oct. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner D. M. White
Oct.–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Eldridge

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Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
American South Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Freedmen's Bureau Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877 Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Slaves -- Emancipation Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
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Washington, D.C. 20004
NMAAHC-ArchivalCollection@si.edu
https://nmaahc.si.edu