Records of the Field Offices for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAAHC.FB.M1910
Dates:
1865–1872
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
106 Reels
Repository:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 106 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1910. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the South Carolina field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872, including previously unfilmed records of the Office of the Assistant Commissioner, and records of the offices of staff officers, subordinate officers, and subordinate field offices. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, including letters and endorsements sent and received, orders and circulars, monthly reports, and other records relating to freedmen's complaints and claims.

Records Description
Records Description
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by the Freedmen's Bureau by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this microfilm publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.
The volumes consist of letters and endorsements sent and received, registers of letters received, unregistered letters received, general and special orders and circulars received, registers of claimants for bounties and pay arrearages, and registers of indentures of apprenticeship. The unbound documents consist of letters and orders received, unregistered letters received and narrative reports received, special orders and circulars issued, general and special orders and circulars received, and other series.
A few series were created in 1862–64, prior to the formation of the Bureau, by Union military commanders and U. S. Treasury agents, and included in the Bureau records. Some of the volumes contain more than one type of record, reflecting a common recording practice of clerks and staff officers in that period. On Roll 32, for example, the Register of Letters Received, Vol. 1 (95), also contains a register of complaints. Researchers should read carefully the records descriptions and arrangements in the table of contents to make full use of these records.

Historical Note
Historical Note
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1910.]
HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self-sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.
The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts.
The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non–Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.
In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.
An act of Congress approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.
For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870, the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. The records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.
THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN SOUTH CAROLINA
ORGANIZATION
Bvt. Maj. Gen. Rufus Saxton, who directed the "Port Royal Experiment," was appointed Assistant Commissioner for South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida on June 10, 1865. Shortly after Saxton assumed his new duties, Howard appointed Assistant Commissioners for Georgia and Florida. Thus, by September 1865 Saxton was, for all practical purposes, Assistant Commissioner solely for South Carolina. Generally, the records pertaining to Georgia and Florida among those of the Assistant Commissioner of South Carolina were created during this period.
The organization of the Bureau in South Carolina was similar to that of the Bureau headquarters in Washington, DC. Saxton's original staff included an assistant adjutant general, an inspector general, a superintendent of education, an assistant quartermaster, a chief commissary of subsistence, and an aide–de–camp.
Officers subordinate to Saxton were responsible for administering the policies of the Bureau in the subdistricts of South Carolina. These subdistricts, as they finally evolved in February 1867, were Anderson, Beaufort, Columbia, Charleston, Lynn, Darlington, Edisto, Greenville, Georgetown, Hilton Head, the South Carolina side of the Savannah River, Unionville, and Williamsburg. The subdistricts were administered by subassistant commissioners. Officers or civilians serving under the subassistant commissioner were called agents.
During the period of the Bureau's existence in South Carolina, there were three Assistant Commissioners operating from three different cities. Gen. Rufus Saxton established his headquarters in Beaufort, but in September 1865 he moved his headquarters to Charleston. Bvt. Maj. Gen. Robert K. Scott succeeded Saxton in January 1866 and carried out the duties of Assistant Commissioner until July 1868 when he resigned to become Governor of South Carolina. Just before Scott resigned, the headquarters was moved to Columbia. Bvt. Col. John R. Edie assumed the position of Assistant Commissioner for South Carolina in August 1868 and served until May 1869. Bvt. Maj. Horace Neide, superintendent of education for South Carolina, acted as Assistant Commissioner until May 31, 1869, when the office was abolished in South Carolina.
Neide and his successor, Bvt. Maj. Edward L. Deane, served as superintendent of education until June 1870 when that office was discontinued. Many of the series of records begun by Assistant Commissioners that were continued by superintendents of education will be found with those of Assistant Commissioners. The Bureau functioned in South Carolina until June 1872, but its activities after June 1870 were mainly in the area of military claims.
ACTIVITIES
The major activities of the Freedmen's Bureau in South Carolina generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau issued rations and provided medical relief to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, and worked with benevolent societies in the establishment of schools.
When Rufus Saxton assumed office as the Assistant Commissioner for South Carolina, he found tens of thousands of freedmen and white refugees in dire need of relief. By mid–summer 1865, with help from the offices of the Commissary General of the Army, the Quartermaster General, and the Surgeon General, Saxton provided more than 300,000 rations, clothing, and medical supplies to nearly 9,000 destitute persons. In 1866, in an effort to encourage self–sufficiency and adhere to Commissioner Howard's policy of supplying relief only to the needy, Saxton's successor, Gen. Robert K. Scott, drastically reduced the number of rations issued and limited them to blacks and whites in hospitals and orphan asylums. Despite Scott's efforts, however, persistent crop storages and crop failures in 1866–67 required the agency to provide aid and other forms of relief to ward off large–scale starvation and destitution. In 1868, the Bureau adopted a crop–lien system in which planters (both black and white) were given rations to distribute to laborers, and a lien was placed against their crops as collateral for repayment for the value of the rations. While the crop lien plan was well–conceived and helpful for both the employers and their employees, many planters were unable, and in some cases unwilling, to repay their loans. By 1870, when the Bureau's relief program ended in South Carolina, most of the monies associated with the loans remained outstanding.1
To further aid and provide medical relief to the "Sick and Suffering," the Freedmen's Bureau in South Carolina established a medical department during the summer and fall of 1865. Under the guidance of the surgeon–in–chief, W. R. De Witt, the Bureau established several camps, dispensaries, and hospitals with a staff of 16 contract physicians and 29 attendants. In spite of limited funding resources, the agency treated more than 8,000 freedmen and white refugees, and by the end of 1866, it provided care for close to 5,000 whites and more than 40,000 blacks. In the latter part of 1868, Bureau hospitals were either closed or turned over to local officials, and dispensaries were discontinued. From its beginning in the summer of 1865 to 1868, the Bureau's medical department in South Carolina provided medical assistance to about 150,000 blacks and 20,000 whites.2
The regulation of written labor agreements between planters and freedmen was a major concern of the Freedmen's Bureau in South Carolina. In orders issued on August 28, 1865 (General Orders Number 11), Assistant Commissioner Saxton charged his subordinates with seeing that "Fair and Liberal" contracts were made between planters and freedmen. Officers were told that agreements that called for a share of the crop were best suited for both landlords and laborers. Many freedmen who believed that the Federal Government planned to divide their former owners' land among them, were reluctant to sign contracts. This was especially true among freedmen on the Sea Islands who had been issued possessory titles under Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman's Special Field Orders Number 15, which set aside for the settlement of blacks "Islands from Charleston south, the abandoned rice–fields along the rivers for thirty miles back from the sea, and the country bordering the Saint John's River, Fla." Nonetheless, with the Bureau's insistence and the threat of being forcibly removed from land they occupied, some 8,000 contracts were signed, and nearly 130,000 freedmen worked under labor agreements between the years 1865 and 1866. On January 1, 1867, Saxton's successor, Gen. R. K. Scott, issued a circular (Circular Number 1) publishing model contracts for a share of the crop and wages. Under the terms of the contracts blacks were entitled to housing, rations, medical attention, fuel, and at least half of the crop. Freedmen who worked for wages were generally paid between $8 and $12 per month and were responsible for supplying their own rations. By the end of 1868, the Bureau closed its operations in South Carolina and thus brought an end to its free labor system.3
Safeguarding rights and securing justice for freedmen was also a priority of the Bureau. Following the Civil War, several Southern states, including South Carolina, enacted a series of laws commonly known as "Black Codes" that restricted the rights and legal status of freedmen. Freedmen were often given harsh sentences for petty crimes and in some instances were unable to get their cases heard in state courts. In a circular issued by Commissioner Oliver Otis Howard on May 30, 1865 (Circular Number 5), Assistant Commissioners were authorized, in places where civil law had been interrupted and blacks' rights to justice were being denied, to adjudicate cases between blacks themselves and between blacks and whites.4
However, before the Freedmen's Bureau's involvement in South Carolina, provost courts and special military commissions served as the primary institutions for administering justice. Established by the Department of the South in the summer of 1865, under General Orders Number 102, provost courts could impose fines up to $100 and sentences of two months (later increased to $500 and six months, respectively). These courts, although subject to change, consisted of one military officer and two civilians who handled cases generally involving larceny and assault and battery. Military commissions were responsible for overseeing more serious cases involving burglary and murder, and functioned under rules similar to those for military courts–martial. In an agreement reached in September 1865 with South Carolina's provisional governor Benjamin F. Perry, military courts were given responsibility over all cases involving blacks, and state courts were to handle cases involving whites. The Freedmen's Bureau courts, which began to assume a greater role in these issues after the passage of the second Freedmen's Bureau law (July 1866), were thus limited in their efforts to protect the rights of freedmen. After the South Carolina Legislature adopted a measure in October 1866 recognizing freedmen's rights and making black testimony admissible in state courts, all cases involving freedmen were turned over to state courts.5
When Reuben Tomlinson became superintendent of the education division of the Freedmen's Bureau in South Carolina in early summer 1865, he found more than nine schools with about 9,000 students already in operation along the coastal region. Tomlinson sought to expand the number of schools throughout the state and increase enrollment. In the summer of 1866, he reported that freedmen schools had increased to 54 with 130 teachers providing instruction for a daily average of more than 5,000 pupils. By June 1867, an additional 19 schools had been added to the system, along with 10 new teachers. During the 1866–67 school year, the Bureau provided nearly $25,000 (primarily for rent and school repairs) of the $107,000 spent on freedmen schools. However, by the end of the 1868 school term, the Bureau's educational efforts were on the decline. Limited funds, waning support from Northern benevolent societies, and a steady decrease in freedmen contributions reversed some of the early progress made in the establishment of the freedmen school system. The number of schools in operation during the 1868 and 1869 school terms dropped from 73 to 49. By the summer of 1870, with all funds exhausted, the Bureau's educational program in South Carolina came to a close, and its buildings were turned over to benevolent societies.6
ENDNOTES
1 Martin Abbott, The Freedmen's Bureau in South Carolina, 1865–1872 (North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press, 1967), esp. pp. 37 – 48; see also Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, pp. 112 – 113.
2 Abbott, The Freedmen's Bureau in South Carolina, pp. 10 – 50.
3 Howard C. Westwood, "Sherman Marched—and Proclaimed Land for the Landless," South Carolina Historical Magazine, Vol. 85 (1984): pp. 33 – 50; For a discussion of the "Free Labor" system in South Carolina, see Abbott, The Freedmen's Bureau in South Carolina, pp. 66 – 81; Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, pp. 113 – 115.
4 House Ex. Doc. 11, 39th Cong., 1st Sess. Serial Vol. 1255, p. 45.
5 Abbott, The Freedmen's Bureau in South Carolina, pp. 99 – 105; Thomas D. Morris, "Equality, 'Extraordinary Law,' and The South Carolina Experience, 1865–1866," South Carolina Historical Magazine, Vol. 83 (1982), pp. 15 – 33.
6 Abbott, The Freedmen's Bureau in South Carolina, pp. 85 – 98; Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, p. 115.

Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in South Carolina
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in South Carolina
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices for South Carolina. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment–related records.
CLAIMS DIVISION
Dec. 1866
Office for Colored Applicants for Bounties and Bounty Pensions A. McL. Crawford
Dec. 1866–Oct. 1867
Officer in Charge A. McL. Crawford
Jan. 1868
Agent in Charge John B. Dennis
Jan.–July 1868
Agent in Charge John B. Dennis
Aug. 1868–Jan. 1869
Subassistant Commissioner (6th Subdistrict, Charleston) W. H. Danilson
Jan.–May 1869
Clerk in Charge William F. De Knight
Sept. 1869–Feb. 1870
Claims Officer Capt. F. C. Von Schirach
Mar.–Oct. 1870
Agent Charles Garretson
ABBEVILLE COURT HOUSE
Mar. 1866–Oct. 1867
Acting Subassistant Commissioner C. R. Becker
Oct.–Dec. 1867
Agent Charles S. Allen
Dec. 1867–Feb. 1868
Agent C. C. Perry
Feb.–Apr. 1868
Agent O. H. Hart
May–Aug. 1868
Agent W. F. De Knight
Aug.–Nov. 1868
Clerk W. F. De Knight
AIKEN (Bureau District of Anderson)
Aug.–Oct. 1866
Acting Assistant Commissioner Benjamin P. Runkle
Oct. 1866
Acting Assistant Commissioner E. R. Chase
Oct. 1866–Feb. 1867
Acting Assistant Commissioner S. Walker
Feb.–Mar. 1867
Acting Assistant Commissioner S. Walker
Mar. 1867–Aug. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner (Subdistrict at Aiken) S. Walker
AIKEN (Edgefield District)
Feb.–Aug. 1866
Subassistant Commissioner J. Devereux (at Hamburg)
Aug.–Sept. 1866
Subassistant Commissioner George P. McDougall (at Aiken)
Sept.–Nov. 1866
Subassistant Commissioner William Stone
Nov. 1866–Feb. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner William Stone (Edgefield and Barnwell Districts)
Feb.–Dec. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Stone
Jan.–Aug. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Stone (Edgefield District)
Aug.–Dec. 1868
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Stone (2nd Subdistrict at Aiken)
ANDERSON COURT HOUSE (Anderson District)
Mar.–Sept. 1866
Acting Subassistant Commissioner William Stone
Sept. 1866–Mar. 1867
Acting Subassistant Commissioner G. P. McDougall
Mar.–Apr. 1867
Agent G. P. McDougall
Apr.–Sept. 1867
Acting Subassistant Commissioner G. P. McDougall
BARNWELL (Barnwell District)
Mar.–May 1866
Subassistant Commissioner E. R. Chase (at Barnwell)
June–Nov. 1866
Subassistant Commissioner E. R. Chase (at Aiken)
Mar. 1867–Apr. 1868
Agent William A. Nerland (at Barnwell)
BEAUFORT
Sept. 1865–Jan. 1866
Agent H. G. Judd
Feb.–Nov. 1867
Agent George W. Gile
Mar.–Aug. 1868
Acting Subassistant Commissioner George W. Gile
Oct. 1868–April 1871
Collecting Agent C. H. Wright
BEAUFORT (Hospital)
Oct. 1865–Dec. 1868
Surgeon A. J. Wakefield
BEAUFORT (Contraband Department)
Apr.–June 1862
Superintendent of Contrabands, Department of the South Sam B. Broad
June–Oct. 1862
Superintendent of Contrabands, Department of the South James D. Strong
Oct. 1862–May 1863
Superintendent of Contrabands, Department of the South John E. Webster
May 1863–Jan. 1864
Clerk Robert M. Taitt
CHESTER
Feb.–June 1867
Subassistant Commissioner D. D. Lind
July–Dec. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner M. J. De Forest
Jan.–July 1868
Agent M. J. De Forest
COLUMBIA (District of Columbia)
Jan.–Apr. 1866
Acting Subassistant Commissioner William H. H. Holton (1st Subdistrict, District of West South Carolina)
Apr.–June 1866
Acting Subassistant Commissioner William H. H. Holton (District of West South Carolina)
June–July 1866
Acting Assistant Commissioner William H. H. Holton (District of Columbia)
July 1866
Acting Assistant Commissioner Benjamin P. Runkle
July 1866–Jan. 1867
Acting Assistant Commissioner William J. Harkisheimer
Jan.–Feb. 1867
Acting Assistant Commissioner J. Durell Greene
Feb.–May 1867
Subassistant Commissioner J. Durell Greene (District of Columbia)
June–Oct. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner William J. Harkisheimer (District of Columbia)
Oct.–Dec. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner William J. Harkisheimer (at Columbia)
Jan.–Dec. 1868
Agent William J. Harkisheimer (at Columbia)
DARLINGTON
Apr.–Dec 1866
Acting Assistant Commissioner George W. Gile
Jan.–Feb. 1867
Acting Assistant Commissioner George Pingree
Feb.–Dec. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner George Pingree
Dec. 1867
Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George Pingree
Mar.–Apr. 1867
Agent M. J. De Forest
Jan.–Aug. 1868
Agent George Pingree
June 1866–Apr. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner M. J. De Forest
Aug–Dec. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner George Pingree
GEORGETOWN
Nov.–Dec. 1865
Acting Subassistant Commissioner A. J. Willard
Dec. 1865–Aug. 1866
Acting Subassistant Commissioner B. F. Smith
Jan.–Oct. 1867
Acting Subassistant Commissioner John Chance
Oct.–Dec. 1867
Aid–de–Camp E. W. Everson
Dec. 1867–July 1868
Agent W. Markwood
Aug. 1868–Jan. 1869
Clerk W. Markwood
GREENVILLE
Apr.–Oct. 1866
Subassistant Commissioner A. E. Niles
Oct. 1866–May 1867
Acting Assistant Commissioner J. W. De Forest
June–Dec. 1867
Acting Assistant Commissioner J. W. De Forest
Jan.–Feb. 1868
Agent W. R. Hoyt
Feb.–May 1868
Agent W. F. De Knight
May–July 1868
Agent Carroll Neide
Aug. 1868
Clerk Carroll Neide
HOPKINS TURN OUT
July–Aug. 1867
Acting Assistant Surgeon Samuel L. Orr
Sept. 1867
Acting Assistant Surgeon Samuel L. Orr (at St. Helena Island)
Oct. 1867
Acting Assistant Surgeon Samuel L. Orr (at Ladies Island)
JOHNS ISLAND
Oct. 1865–Mar. 1866
Acting Assistant Surgeon B. Burgh Smith (at St. Pauls Parish)
May–Sept. 1866
Acting Assistant Surgeon B. Burgh Smith (at Johns Island)
Dec. 1866–Sept. 1867
Acting Assistant Surgeon I. L. Beckett
Oct. 1867–May 1868
Acting Assistant Surgeon S. B. Thompson
Jan.–Apr. 1868
Special Agent S. B. Thompson
KINGSTREE
Jan.–Mar. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner A. E. Niles
Apr.–June 1867
Subassistant Commissioner M. J. De Forest
June–Dec. 1867
Agent A. Swails
Jan.–Dec. 1868
Agent Garrett Nagle
LAURENSVILLE
Dec. 1867–Mar. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner John R. Edie
Apr.–Aug. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner Alfred Smith
Aug.–Dec. 1868
Clerk Nathaniel Freeman
MARION
June 1866–Jan. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner George E. Pingree
June 1867–Mar. 1868
Agent J. E. Lewis
July–Aug. 1868
Agent William H. Lockwood
MONCKS CORNER
Jan.–Apr. 1866
Acting Subassistant Commissioner F. W. Liedtke
Apr. 1866–Jan. 1867
Acting Subassistant Commissioner F. W. Liedtke
May 1867–Mar. 1868
Acting Subassistant Commissioner F. W. Liedtke
MOUNT PLEASANT
Feb.–June 1866
Acting Subassistant Commissioner D. T. Corgbin
July 1866–Mar. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner Edward F. O'Brien
Apr.–Oct. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner E. W. Everson
Oct. 1867–Aug. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Dailson
ORANGEBURG
Aug. 1865–Mar. 1866
Acting Subassistant Commissioner E. A. Koylay
Mar.–July 1866
Subassistant Commissioner L. C. Skinner
July 1867–Jan. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner William H. H. Holton
Jan.–June 1868
Agent William H. H. Holton
June–July 1868
Agent Edmund S. Woog
Aug.–Nov. 1868
Clerk Joseph A. Greene
Nov.–Dec. 1868
Agent Robert Ahern
ROCKVILLE
Feb. 1866
Subassistant Commissioner E. W. Everson
Mar.–June 1866
Acting Subassistant Commissioner J. E. Cornelius
June–Dec. 1866
Acting Subassistant Commissioner J. E. Cornelius
Jan.–June 1867
Acting Subassistant Commissioner E. W. Everson
June–Dec. 1867
Acting Subassistant Commissioner Henry McHenry
SUMMERVILLE
Sept.–Oct. 1865
Subassistant Commissioner James C. Beecher
Nov. 1865–Jan. 1866
Subassistant Commissioner Daniel F. Towles
Apr.–May 1866
Subassistant Commissioner James C. Beecher
June 1866–Feb. 1867
Subassistant Commissioner Garrett Nagle
Feb.–Apr. 1867
Agent Garrett Nagle
Apr.–Dec. 1867
Acting Subassistant Commissioner Garrett Nagle
UNIONVILLE
June 1866–Mar. 1868
Subassistant Commissioner A. P. Caraher

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Preferred Citation
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Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
American South Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Freedmen's Bureau Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877 Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Slaves -- Emancipation Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

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Washington, D.C. 20004
NMAAHC-ArchivalCollection@si.edu
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