Guide to the Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection
Portions of this collection are digitized

Collection ID:
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )
circa 1920-1975
Collection is in
. Some Gypsy language materials (Series 1, box 3, folder 6).
Physical Description:
4.3 Cubic feet
15 boxes

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
This collection consists of 4.3 cubic feet of manuscript, print, and photographic materials created or collected by Carl de Wendler-Funaro (1898-1985) in pursuit of his interest in Gypsy life and culture. (Carlos de Wendler-Funaro used several forms of his name; he wrote mostly as Carl de Wendler-Funaro.) The -collection was brought to the attention of the Division of Community Life, National Museum of American History, by Matt T. Salo and donated to the Smithsonian by Dr. de Wendler-Funarol's widow, Cornelia de Funaro, in May 1985, through Richard E. Ahlborn, Curator.
The number and breadth of the photographic materials, especially, the accompanying documentation and their representation of many Gypsy groups in a single time period, make this collection an important resource for research.
Print and Manuscript Materials
The print and manuscript materials in the collection are organized-into six series: (1) materials for which Carl de Wendler-Funaro is author, co-author or editor; (2) materials about de Wendler-Funaro; (3) correspondence; (4) journals, books, or extracts from them, by various authors; (5) newspaper and magazine articles; (6) photomechanical images from newspapers, magazines, and books.
The manuscript materials include drafts of portions of planned books, reading notes, and Gypsy language notes and transcriptions. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have planned two books. One was to have been a book of his photographs, with accompanying essays describing his encounters with Gypsies, the other a work on Gypsies, especially those in the United States. The major element of the second book was to have been the history of the Rom in this country as told by Steve Kaslov. The second work was to have included the manuscripts, 'The Last Caravan,' on Romnichels in the United States; 'Romanian Gypsies in Maspeth Village,' on the Ludar; 'Hungarian Gypsies,' orx these musicians in the United States; and some folk tale materials. Several outlines for the two books are in the collection.
The draft materials written with Steve Kaslov include an account of the Gypsy leader Chaiko Jura. The account, which seems to approach legend at some points, describes his immigration to the United States, adventures in this country, and death. Also among the draft materials, and intended to follow in the proposed book, is what may be termed an official biography of Steve Kaslov (c. 1888-1949). Apparently tentatively entitled "The Ways of my People,' the manuscript recounts a few incidents, told at length, in the experiences of Kaslov's family and social network from about 1900 to about 1938.
De Wendler-Funaro's notes suggest that the Kaslov biography was dictated to an unnamed lawyer in the early 1930s and given to de Wendler-Funaro in 1934. Kaslov dictated the story of Chaiko to de Wendler-Funaro. (Perhaps this is the source of a statement in the
New York Sun
, June 20, 1941, that Kaslov had written two books.)
The okaslov manuscripts' are written mostly in a variety of American English common among American Rom. Parts of the biographical section are written in the first person, others in the third. Cultural material includes descriptions of weddings, funerary ritual, business transactions, conflicts and conflict resolution. As factual sources the manuscripts are unreliable: dates, for example, are only very approximate; birth places for Steve Kaslov and his family are incorrect.
Evidence in the manuscripts indicates that de Wendler-Funaro hoped, through 1976, to publish these texts in some form. Apparently Kaslov made a first attempt to publish in 1940, when he sent a draft to Eleanor Roosevelt. Mrs. Roosevelt sent the manuscript on to George Bye, a literary agent, who returned it in 1941 as unpublishable, calling it a Oterribly disorganized manuscript .... [Kaslov] is now working with a doctor (de Wendler-Funarol who claims to be an author but the results are very unhappy' (Correspondence in FDR Library).
Correspondence in the collection (series 3) includes letters to and from de Wendler-Funaro; drafts of letters by Steve Kaslov, soliciting aid for Gypsy education; and correspondence between the U.S. Consulate in Matamoros, Mexico, and the U.S. Department of State. According to Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro destroyed his other correspondence before his death.
Many of the books, journals, articles, and extracts in the collection (series 4)- are materials upon which de Wendler-Funarol's dissertation is based. They include typed transcriptions of published articles as well as printed matter; dates of the materials range from 1554 to 1979.
The collection includes about 2,000 photoprints, including multiple copies, and 2,000 negatives. These materials are organized into eleven series: (7) photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies in the United States; (8)photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies outside the United States; (9) heirloom photographs'; (10) photographs by other creators; (11) photographs ;rom commercial agencies; (12) photographs of non-Gypsies; (13) photocopies, of numbered photos, in numerical order; (14) negatives; (15) contact sheets made from negatives from by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic Services, 1986; (16) scrapbook sheets; (17) slides made from negatives and prints by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic. services, 1986.
The original photographs by Carlos de Wendlet-Funaro span the,period 1922 to 1966, but the majority were taken from about 1932 to about 1942. More than half the photographs are of the Rom group of Gypsies in the United States, and most of these were taken in New York City from about 1938 to about 1942. Other original photos by de Wendler-Funaro are of other Gypsy groups in the United States -- Ludar, Romnichels, 'Black Dutch,w and Hungarian musicians -- as well as of Gypsies in Mexico, Holland, Germany, Austria, France, England, and Hungary. Photographs by other creators include copies of portraits collected from Gypsy families, photos by other photographers, and commercial news photographs collected by de Wendler-Funaro.
De Wendler-Funaro seems to have used the photographs to gain access to Gypsy families and communities (many photos show Gypsies examining albums and sets of pictures). Some photographs were published in his 1937 article, and in two articles by Victor Weybright (1938a, 1938b). De Wendler-Funaro apparently also used lantern slides made from these photographs in lectures on the subject of Gypsies; a handbill advertising his availability on the lecture circuit is part of the collection.
Manuscript drafts for book outlines, introductions, and accompanying essays show that de Wendler-Funaro long nurtured hopes of publishing a popular tool-, 'Incorporating his photographs. To this end he numbered and captioned more than a hundred of these; a partial list of captions is part of the manuscript files. For the most part, the captions are not very helpful in understanding Gypsy cultures. Photocopies of these pictures with captions, in numerical order, are in box 8. With some exceptions, most of the photographs can be used to study costume, personal ornament, and kinesics; these will not be listed separately as subjects in the inventory. The photos of the Rom in New York City show several types of traditional costume, contemporary modish dress, and a wide range of variations on both. Taken together with the "heirloom photos' collected from the same group, they show change and variety in men's and women's dress.
In the photographs of individuals and groups one may compare, for example, sitting positions of women with relation to costume and use (or non-use) of chairs.
Most of the photographs of Rom taken in New York City show Gypsies relaxing on stoops or in the street during the summer, a common pastime in their neighborhoods. They contain little culturally specific information other than that discussed above.
Information on housing is most clearly represented in photographs of camps, in which the type of tent and, to some extent, the relationships of tents, are visible. All the tents shown appear to be commercially made. Since it was the practice to raise the tent walls in good weather, many photos also show tent interiors, with wooden platform floors used on non-grassy sites (Rom) or linoleum as a ground cloth (Romnichel). The use of featherbeds; either alone (Rom) or with bedsteads (Romnichel) is documented.
There are few photographs showing the use of interior space in urban storefront or apartment dwellings (Rom). The photographs taken in the Maspeth, Long Island, 'Gypsy village' show exteriors of the shacks built@by the Ludar.
Of cooking and heating equipment, the cast-iron or sheet-metal stoves of the Romnichels are most evident. The Rom are shown using a variety of equipment, the traditional trivet (Mexico), the Coleman-type camp stove (U.S), and the pot-bellied coal stove (New York City).
Photographs of autos and trucks, auto-drawn luggage trailers (Romnichels in the North), and horse-drawn wagons (by the horse and mule trading Romnichels in the South) reveal something of the transport of people and goods.
A few photographs show subjects at work, but most work pictures are static demonstrations or mere associations with productive enterprise. There are demonstrations of coppersmithing and fender repair work (Rom), and manufacture of rustic furniture (Romnichels), as well as posed demonstrations of palm-reading. Romnichels in the South are shown posing with horses and mules. The business that appears most frequently is fortune-telling, through photographs of roadside business tents (Romnichel); amusement, fair, and resort-area tents and stands (Rom); and canvas facades, banners and signs carrying the fortune-teller's message.
Ritual life is poorly represented in the photographs. There are some photos of a funeral procession, and one interior shot of a funeral; two photos of a saint's-day feast; one of a memorial feast; and one set taken in preparation for Christmas festivities. Curiously, there are no photographs of Rom weddings. The dearth of pictures of rituals and celebrations, which form so important a part of Rom life, may be due to difficulties with interior lighting.
Because of internal and other inconsistencies, exact dating of the photographs is often difficult. Discrepancies of as much as ten year occur in some of the dates in de Wendler-Funaro's notes.

Collection is arranged into seventeen series.

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
According to information supplied by Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro was born in Brooklyn, New York, on October 12, 1898. After attending Boys' High School and Erasmus Hall High School in Brooklyn, he attended the University of Illinois and Cornell University, receiving a bachelor's degree in entolomology from Cornell in 1923. Subsequently he taught foreign languages at New York University, the McBurney School of the YMCA in New York City, Newark Academy and Wagner College. He began graduate work in the late 1930s, and in 1958 earned a doctorate from Columbia University with a dissertation on 'The Gitano in Spanish Literature' (a copy is in the collection, Box 1, folders 2 and 3). De Wendler-Funaro retired from teaching in 1963; he died in Tucson, Arizona on February 15, 1985.
Carl de Wendler-Funaro was an avid amateur collector of insects, especially Coleoptera, as well as shells, minerals, stamps and coins; his insect collections were donated to the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
De Wendler-Funaro's interest in Gypsies, according to his manuscripts, began in childhood. The manuscripts and one published article indicate that this interest continued to be personal, rather than professional,,,,apd @hat,,he, did not pursue his contacts with Gypsies systematically. (it was, not, 'until' the late 1940s that anthropologists began systematic studies of GYPSY.@ cultures.) It appears that de Wendler-Funaro sought out Gypsies in fairgrounds, amusement parks and urban storefronts, collecting specimens of language and taking photographs. Irving Brown's letter to de Wendler-Funaro (1929), and de Wendler-Funarol's article in Leisure (1937) refer to his visits to amusement parks. Some of his Romnichel (English Gypsy) subjects recall him as the man who drove along the roads, stopping to take pictures wherever he saw a tent. About 1938 de Wendler-Funaro became involved with a Committee on Gypsy Problems of the Welfare Council, a social service agency of New York City. This involvement may have been an outgrowth of his association with Steve Kaslov, styled by some a Gypsy king. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have served as Kaslov's amanuensis.

Gypsies in the United States
Gypsies in the United States
Several groups, all known to outsiders as "Gypsies," live today in the United Sates. In their native languages, each of the groups refers to itself by a specific name, but all translate their self-designations as 'Gypsy' when speaking English. Each had its own cultural, linguistic, and historical tradition before coming to this country, and each maintains social distance from the others. An overview of these groups and their interethnic relations is presented in "Gypsy Ethnicity: Implications of Native Categories and Interaction for Ethnic Classification," by Matt T. Salo.
The Rom arrived in the United States from Serbia, Russia and Austria-Hungary beginning in the 1880s, part of the larger wave of immigration from southern and eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Primary immigration ' ended, for the most part, in 1914, with the beginning of the First World War and subsequent tightening of immigration restrictions (Salo and Salo 1986). Many people in this group specialized in coppersmith work, mainly the repair and retinning of industrial equipment used in bakeries, laundries, confectionaries, and other businesses. The Rom, too, developed the fortune-telling business in urban areas.
Two subgroups of the Rom, the Kalderash ('coppersmiths') and, Machwaya natives of machva,' a county in Serbia) appear in the photographs iiv, this collection. De Wendler-Funaro identified some, but not all, Kalderash as, 'Russian Gypsies.' Another group he identified as "Russian Gypsies' seem, to,, be the Rusniakuria ('Ruthenians'), who in New York are known as musicians and singers.
The Ludar, or "Romanian Gypsies,' also immigrated to the United States during the great immigration from southern and eastern Europe between 1880 and 1914. Most of the Ludar came from northwestern Bosnia. Upon their arrival in the United States they specialized as animal trainers and show people, and indeed passenger manifests show bears and monkeys as a major part of their baggage. Most of de Wendler-Funarols photographs of this group were taken in Maspeth, a section of the borough of Queens in New York City, where the Ludar created a village of home-made shacks that existed from about 1925 to 1939, when it was razed. A similar settlement stood in the Chicago suburbs during the same period. One of de Wendler-Funarols manuscripts, "Romanian Gypsies at Maspeth Village,' (box 1, folder 9), and a letter from Ammiee Ellis, a social worker (box 2, folder 2), refer to this settlement.
The Romnichels, or English Gypsies, began to come to the United States from England in 1850. Their arrival coincided with an increase in the demand for draft horses in agriculture and then in urbanization, and many Romnichels worked as horse-traders. After the rapid decline in the horse trade following the First World War, most Romnichels relied on previously secondary enterprises, 'basket-making,* including the manufacture and sale of rustic furniture, and fortune-telling. Horse and mule trading continued to some extent in southern states where poverty and terrain slowed the adoption of tractor power (Salo and Salo 1982).
Photoprints in box 6, folders 2 through 10, correspond with de Wendler-Funarols trip described in his manuscript 'In Search of the Last Caravan' (box 1, folder 10). Discrepancies between this manuscript and the photos should be noted. De Wendler-Funarols notes date this trip variously between 1931 and 1945. I have dated it about 1940. Although one man appears as a frequent subject in the largest set of photos (box 6, folders 22 and 23), in the manuscript, de Funaro mentions having missed meeting him.
'Black Dutch'
Gypsies from Germany, whom de Wendler-Funaro refers to 'as Chikkeners (Pennsylvania German, from the German Zigeuner), sometimes refer to themselves as wblack Dutch.w They are few in number and claim to have largely assimilated to Romnichel culture. They are represented in de Wendler-Punarols photographs by a few portraits of one old man and briefly referred to in the manuscript mIn Search of the Last Caravan.*
Hungarian Gypsies
The Hungarian musicians also came to this country with the eastern European immigration. In the U.S. they continued as musicians to the Hungarian and Slovak immigrant settlements.

Sheila Salo
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Collection donated by Mrs. Cornelia de Funaro, June 26, 1985.
Custodial History
Collection transferred to the Archives Center from the Division of Community Life (now Division of Cultural and Community Life), June 26, 1985.
Processing Information
I would like to thank John Fleckner, David Haberstich, and Robert S. Harding of the Archives Center for their advice and support throughout the preparation of this guide. David Haberstich deserves special thanks for his work in printing the photographs reproduced in this volume. I thank Richard E. Ahlborn, Curator, Division of Community Life, for his continuing interest in documenting American Gypsy life. I would also like to thank the Romnichel and Rom Gypsies who viewed and commented on some of the photographs in the Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Collection.
To the memory of Lazo le Georgesko.
Processing Information
This collection was organized and described by Sheila Salo, a 'student of Gypsy culture and history, under a grant from the Smithsonian Institution Office of Fellowships and Grants.

Bibliography of works cited
Bibliography of works cited
Salo, Matt T. 1979. Gypsy Ethnicity; Implications of Native Categories and Interaction for Ethnic Classification. Ethnicity 6: 73-96.
Salo, Matt T. and Sheila Salo. 1982. Romnichel Economic and Social' rgan zation in Urban New England, 1850-1930. Urban Anthropology 11(3-4): 273-313.
Salo, Matt T. and Sheila Salo. 1986. Gypsy Immigration to the United States. In Papers from the Sixth and Seventh Annual Meetings, Joanne Grumet, ed. New York: Gypsy Lore Society, North American Chapter. 85-96.
Wendler-Funaro, Carl de. 1937. Gypsying as a Pastime. Leisure 4(5): 22-23.
Weybright, Victor. 1938a. Reality overtakes the Gypsies. New York Times azine, July 31, 1938.
Weybright, Victor. 1938b. Who Can Tell the Gypsies' Fortune? Survey Graphic 27: 142-145.
De Wendler-Funaro 1937 and Weybright 1938a are in the present collection; the remaining works are in the Reference Collection of the D vision of Community Life, NMAH.

Bibliographic References
Bibliographic References
See review of the film, "American Gypsy: A Stranger in Everybody's Land," by Matt T. Salo in American Anthropologist, Vol. 102, No. 2, June 2000, pp. 353-354.

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Access
Collection is open for research.
Conditions Governing Use
Photographs by de Wendler-Funaro are available for reproduction. Fees for commercial use. Permission to reproduce photographs by Alexander Alland must be granted by the photographer's estate; other photographs may have copyright restrictions.
Preferred Citation
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.

More Information

Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950 Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Journals -- 1930-1950 Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Dissertations Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Funeral rites and ceremonies -- manuscripts -- Gypsies Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Wagons, Gypsy -- 1920-1980 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Weddings -- manuscripts -- Gypsies Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Orthodox Eastern Church -- Photographs -- 1920-1980 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Tents -- Photographs -- 1920-1980 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Housing -- Photographs -- Wagons -- 1920-1980 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Bears -- performing -- 1920-1980 -- Maspeth (N.Y.) Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Housing -- Photographs -- Tents -- 1920-1980 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Labor and laboring classes -- Photographs -- 1920-1980 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Scrapbooks -- 20th century Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1930-1950 Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Manuscripts -- 1920-1970 Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
West Virginia -- 1930-1950 Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
New Jersey -- 1930-1950 Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Maspeth (Queens, Long Island, N.Y.) -- 1930-1950 Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
New York (N.Y.) -- photographs -- 1930-1950 Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Coppersmiths -- 1930-1950 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Musicians -- 1930-1950 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Furniture-making -- 1930-1950 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Horse-trading -- 1930-1950 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Fortune-telling -- 1930-1950 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Training -- Animals -- 1930-1950 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Collectors and collecting Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Gypsies -- 1920-1980 -- United States Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Costume -- Gypsies -- 1920-1980 Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Portraits -- Gypsies Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Community Life Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Kaslov, Pupa Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Jura, Chaiko (Gypsy leader) Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies ) Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
P.O. Box 37012
Suite 1100, MRC 601
Washington, D.C. 20013-7012