Guide to the Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project
Digitized Content

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAH.AC.0198
Creators:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.
Zinn, Manfredo
Marx, Dick
Nunez, Raul
Winfield, Darrel
Kwan, William
Kwong, Goddard
Adams, Hall
Landry, Jack
Arguelles, Rafael
Fockler, Knut
Philip Morris, Inc.
Gil, Felipe
Jarrard, Tom
Dates:
1926-1988
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
17.4 Cubic feet
86 boxes
Repository:

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
The Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project is the result of a two-year effort supported in part by a gift from Philip Morris, Inc. Sixty oral history interviews and a variety of television commercials, print advertising, promotional materials, packaging, and industry publications were gathered to document Marlboro cigarette advertising. The bulk of the collection focuses on the period between 1954 and 1986, and examines the "Marlboro man", "Settle Back" and "Marlboro Country" campaigns. The collection is a rich source of information for researchers interested in advertising and marketing history, issues of smoking and health, and the export of both tobacco and American cultural symbols abroad. The core of the collection is a series of interviews conducted during 1985-1987 by Dr. Scott Ellsworth, an independent scholar and oral historian. The broad range of interviewees included executives of Philip Morris, advertising agency personnel from Leo Burnett, photographers, production staff, sales and marketing personnel, and Marlboro cowboys. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted overseas, in Argentina, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Hong Kong, Switzerland, and West Germany. Conducted primarily with Marlboro licensee and affiliate staff, the interviews focus on the marketing and advertising history of Marlboro in the six nations. These interviews and others conducted with executives of Philip Morris International in New York City also address the history of Marlboro advertising in Africa, the Middle East, China, Eastern Europe and elsewhere in Europe and Latin America. The interviews cover events from the 1930s through the 1980s. They focus on the theory and development of Marlboro advertising, its content and creation, and its modifications over the years. The foreign interviews also discuss the structure of the local cigarette marketplace, marketing and advertising techniques, and the use and modification of Marlboro advertising for different cultures. Finding aids to the oral histories include abstracts of each interview indicating the major topic discussed, a cumulative index to personal names and topics in the interviews, and brief biographical and scope notes.

Arrangement
Arrangement
Dthe collection is divided into seven series.
Series 1: Research Files, 1943-1987
Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1986
Series 3; Oral History Interviews, 1986
Series 4: Advertising Materials, 1926-1986
Series 5: Promotional items and packaging, 1926-1986
Series 6: Publications and Research Material, 1960-1988
Series 7: Travel Slides Generated by Project Team, 1926-1986

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
The history of Marlboro cigarettes offers insight into one of the great advertising and marketing success stories of the 20th century. Marlboro cigarettes were marketed from the Victorian era through the first half of this century as a women's cigarette, with tag-lines that aimed to appeal to female smokers, such as "Marlboro - Mild As May." In 1955, two transformations occurred which would affect both profitability and brand recognition: the addition of an integrated filter and the re-invention of the market through the debut of the "Marlboro Man" advertising campaign. The original Marlboro Man campaign featured close-up images of all kinds of men using the product -- the cowboy was one, along with lifeguards, sailors, drill sergeants, construction workers, gamblers and other types suggestive of a masculine spirit and rugged independence. By 1963, the "Marlboro Country" campaign began. This campaign focused on the cowboy and his symbolic canon: boots, hats, horses, and western landscapes. By the mid-1980s, Marlboro was the best-selling brand in the United States and the world, and the Marlboro cowboy was among the most widely recognized of American cultural symbols. Sold in over 180 nations, both the cigarettes and the ad campaign had become a global phenomena.

Administration
Processing Information
Collection processed by Stacy Flaherty, 1987
Author
Stacy Flaherty
Immediate Source of Acquisition
The collection was donated to the Archives Center by Philip Morris, Inc. in 1986.

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation
Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Conditions Governing Access
The materials in the Marlboro Collection are made available for research according to the established practices and principles of the Archives Center and the National Museum of American History.
Conditions Governing Use
In making these materials available for research, the Smithsonian Institution makes no claims of ownership of the copyrights or related rights. All responsibility for infringement of legal authorship rights and or copyright is assumed by the user of the materials. In addition, the user indemnifies and holds harmless the Smithsonian Institution for all claims, actions, damages, judgments and expenses that may result from use of these materials. In addition, the donor has imposed restrictions on reproduction or broadcast of collection materials by third parties. The reproduction or broadcast of print ads and television commercials in the collection is subject to prior written consent from: Nancy Lund, Vice President, Marketing,Philip Morris International, 120 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017;(917) 663-5000

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Brazil -- Advertising Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Argentina -- Advertising Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Color slides -- 1960-1990 Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
T.V. commercial producers Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photographers Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Cinematographers Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Accountants Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
advertising -- Cigarettes -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Cowboys -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
China -- Advertising Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Advertising, Newspaper -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Commercials Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hong Kong -- Advertising Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Audiotapes -- 1980-1990 Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Videotapes Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Posters Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Proofs (printed matter) Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Newsletters Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Articles Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Switzerland -- Advertising Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
West Germany -- Advertising Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Dominican Republic -- Advertising Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Smoking -- 1940-1990 Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Travel photography -- 1940-1990 Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photography, Advertising -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Advertising photography Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000 Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Advertising campaigns -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Cigarette industry -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Cigarettes -- advertising -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Marlboro (cigarette brand) Title Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Advertising agencies -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Television advertising -- Cigarettes -- 1940-1990 Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Advertising, magazine -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Art directors Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Copy writers Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Leo Burnett, Inc. Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
P.O. Box 37012
Suite 1100, MRC 601
Washington, D.C. 20013-7012
archivescenter@si.edu
http://americanhistory.si.edu/archives