Guide to the Sendzimir Mill Video Documentation

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAH.AC.0605
Creators:
Liebhold, Peter
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.
Dates:
December 1996.
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
1 Cubic foot
3 boxes
27 video recordings
Repository:

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
Inventor Tadeusz Sendzimir, a Polish immigrant, designed and installed the first "Z" Mill for cold rolling stainless steel in the United States. The videohistory documents the story of a new approach to the rolling process of steel technology transfer and consumer demand for a new product;video documents the mill in operation and interviews with active and retired workers.

Arrangement
Arrangement
The collection is divided into 3 series.
Series 1: Original Videotapes (13)
Series 2: Master Videotapes (7)
Series 3: Reference Videotapes (7).

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
Tadeusz Sendzimir, a Polish émigré, came to the United States in 1939 to work at Armco Steel in Middletown, Ohio. Sendzimir had earlier developed radical processes for galvanizing steel (1931) and cold rolling steel (1933). Sendzimir's rolling process departed dramatically from the multi-stand continuous process developed by John Tytus Armco (1924). Instead of using multi-stand four high rolls Sendzimir's mill used a clustered nest of rolls, like two inverted pyramids (1-2-3-4 configuration). A few Sendzimir Mills were built in Europe before WW II stopped construction of experimental steel plants. While Sendzimir was working at Armco, Signode Steel in Chicago ordered on of his "Z" Mills (Sendzimir Mills are called "Z" Mills in the United States). Signode used the mill to successfully roll low carbon steel for strapping and more importantly for rolling ultra thin silicon steel (for radar units) during WW II.
Stainless steel, first developed around 1915, is made by alloying carbon steel with chromium to make a metal that is highly resistant to corrosion. Stainless steel is relatively hard and is difficult to weld, cut, or drill. The physical properties of stainless steel are important to understanding why the "Z" mill has been so successful. Stainless steel was traditionally rolled in sheets on a four high reversing mill (with a Z mill much larger strips forming rolls can be made). Because stainless steel work hardens quickly it cannot be run through a multi-stand mill easily. One advantage of the a Z mill is that the small work rolls provide a sharper bite, greater pressure, and less roll deflection than a four high mill and thus can roll stainless top gage without having to anneal (soften) the roll.
For more on Sendzimir as an inventor see Steel Will: The Life of Tad Sendizmir, Hippocrene Books, New York, 1994 and by Vanda Sendzimir or "My Father the Inventor" in Invention and Technology, Fall 1995, p. 54-63 also by Vanda Sendzimir.

Administration
Processing Information
Collection processed by Alison Oswald, 1997.
Author
Alison Oswald
Immediate Source of Acquisiton
Created by the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation and Peter Liebhold of the Division of History of Technology in December 1996.

Using the Collection
Restrictions on Access
Unrestricted research use of reference vidreotapes on site, by appointment. Original videotapes are stored off-site.
Preferred Citation
Sendzimir Mill Video Documentation, December 1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Terms Governing Use and Reproduction
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Related Archival Materials
Mill's central control pulpit in collection of the Division of History of Technology.

Ownership and Custodial History
Ownership and Custodial History
Transferred from the Division of Work and Industry to the Archives Center July 8, 1997.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Steel industry and trade -- 1930-2000 Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Steel -- Cold working -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Videotapes -- 1990-2000 Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Oral history -- 1990-2000 Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Interviews -- 1980-2000 Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Steel, Stainless -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Factories -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Inventions -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Inventors -- 20th century Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Washington Steel Mill Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Sendzimir, Tadeusz, 1894-1989 Personal Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
P.O. Box 37012
Suite 1100, MRC 601
Washington, D.C. 20013-7012
archivescenter@si.edu
http://americanhistory.si.edu/archives