Guide to the Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album, circa 1904-1914

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAH.AC.1040
Creators:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI
Kingsford, Katherine
Dates:
circa 1904-1914
Languages:
English
Collection is in English.
Physical Description:
0.15 Cubic feet
1 box
Repository:
An album of photographs of Panama and the Panama Canal, circa 1904-1914.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
The collection consists of a disbound album of photographs relating to the Panama Canal, including a few construction scenes, vessels traveling through the Canal, urban and rural street scenes, housing, hospital scenes, historic buildings, and people. The three inch by three inch photographic prints are mounted on black album paper and most are badly faded and unidentified. Most of the photographs are informal and have the feel of snapshots taken by an amateur photographer. There are a few larger format photographs. Also included is the
Official Handbook of the Panama Council
, 1913.

Arrangement
Arrangement
This collection is arranged in one series.
Series 1, Photograph Album, circa 1904-1914

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
On November 18, 1903, the United States and Panama negotiated the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, which granted the United States. permission to construct a canal that would join the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Construction for the Panama Canal began on May 4, 1904. The large workforce -- at its highest population in 1913 it numbered 44,733 men, not including those sick, on leave, or otherwise absent -- had a great impact on Panama. As there were not enough amenities to accommodate them when they arrived, the workers built entire communities, paved streets, improved communication systems, and installed water and sewage systems. Likewise, the railroad was improved for more efficient transportation of supplies, labor, food, and equipment. Much to the credit of Chief Sanitary Officer Dr. William Crawford Gorgas, yellow fever was completely eradicated on the isthmus and malaria cases greatly reduced. Native villages and towns along the planned construction route were required to relocate.
The first self-propelled, ocean-bound vessel traveled on the canal on January 7, 1914, and the canal was formally opened in August of that year. The Panama Canal construction project was the most expensive construction project in United States history to that date, costing $375,000,000.

Administration
Processing Information
Processed by Kiley Orchard (intern), 2008; supervised by Vanessa Broussard Simmons, archivist.
Author
Kiley Orchard (intern); supervised by Vanessa Broussard Simmons, archivist.
Immediate Source of Acquisition
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History's Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (now Division of Work and Industry) by Katherine Kingsford in1982. It was transferred to the Archives Center in 2007.

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Access
The collection is open for research use.
Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Conditions Governing Use
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Preferred Citation
Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution

Related Materials
Materials in the Archives Center
William Currie Photograph Album (AC1043)
John Frances Little Panama Canal Scrapbook (AC0708)
Roland A. McCrady Photograph Collection (AC0710)
Robert Dearborn Panama Canal Photonegatives (AC1111)
W.A. Fishbaugh Panama Canal Photograph Album (AC1021)
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection (AC0143)
W.P. Stine Panama Canal Papers (AC1039)

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Canals -- Panama Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Photograph albums -- 20th century Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Panama Canal (Panama) Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Panama Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI. Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI Corporate Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
P.O. Box 37012
Suite 1100, MRC 601
Washington, D.C. 20013-7012
archivescenter@si.edu
http://americanhistory.si.edu/archives