Guide to the American Relief Administration, European Children's Fund Collection

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAH.AC.1199
Creators:
American Relief Administration. European Children's Fund
Dates:
1919 - 1921
Languages:
German
Some materials in English.
Physical Description:
0.3 Cubic feet
1 box, 1 oversize folder
Repository:
The collection consists of photographs and printed materials (almost exclusively in German), documenting the relief efforts of the American Relief Administration (A.R.A.), European Children's Fund (E.C.F.) (Mission to Austria), 1920-1921, to feed malnourished children in Europe in the post-World War I era. The photographs, publications and charts in this collection specifically relate to children in Vienna and other Austrian cities.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
The collection consists of photographs and printed materials (all in German), documenting the efforts of the American Relief Administration, European Children's Fund (Mission to Austria), to feed malnourished children in Europe in the post-World War I era. The photographs, publications and charts in this collection specifically relate to children in Vienna and other Austrian cities.
Series 1, Photographs, 1920-1921, consists of black and white copy prints documenting children being fed or playing, kitchen scenes, and dormitory scenes throughout Austria. There are two images depicting the Pedilisi score for two unidentified boys. Some of the prints are captioned.
Series 2, Printed Materials and Charts, 1919-1921, includes writings by Clemens Peter Freiherr von Pirquet (1874--929) an Austrian scientist and pediatrician best known for his contributions to the fields of bacteriology and immunology. Pirquet worked with the American Relief Administration, European Children's Fund in Austria and developed the Pedilisi method of determining a child's level of malnourishment.

Arrangement
Arrangement
The collection is divided into two series.
Series 1, Photographs, 1920-1921
Series 2, Printed Materials and Charts, 1919-1921

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
The American Relief Administration (A.R.A.) was formed by the United States Congress in 1919 as a relief mission to Europe after World War I. Herbert Hoover, future president of the United States, was the program director. A humanitarian organization, A.R.A. was tasked with alleviating the suffering of European children in the years after World War I.
In 1919, a special Children's Relief Bureau was organized within the A.R.A. Many European children being cared for were orphans, and many had suffered malnourishment during the war. Hoover insisted that aid be provided to them. Although the new A.R.A. European Children's Fund (E.C.F) was an outgrowth of the A.R.A. which acted as an agent of the United States government, the European Children's Fund was a private volunteer organization for the promotion of charitable causes. While the E.C.F. did not have a formal charter, the food supplies were donated from the Congressional appropriation and the president's National Security and Defense Fund. The E.C.F. operated for five years, from 1919 to 1924. It was headquartered in New York City with a branch office in London and began operations in August, 1919. Field missions were located in Finland, Estonia, northwest Russia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Romania, and Yugoslavia. The E.C.F. relied heavily upon the assistance and cooperation of other organizations such as the European Relief Council, Red Cross, American Friends Service Committee, and the Y.M.C.A. A system of central and regional warehouses was maintained . Children needing aid met the following requirements: registration through a school, investigation by a local committee, and a physical examination by a local physician. All feeding of children was done in special kitchens setup at institutions, orphanages, or hospitals. In most countries a noonday meal was served and every child was issued a card which was punched for each meal received.
Child-feeding programs in Austria began on May 5, 1919. The method for feeding and selecting children in Austria was developed by Dr. Clemens von Pirquet (1874-1929) of Vienna University Children's Hospital. Pirquent's method was known as the Pelidisi formula which is the ratio between the sitting height and the weight of the child. The Pelidisi norm was expressed as 100, but with children it was 94.5 since they did not carry as much fat. Children with a Pelidisi of 94 were considered underfed and those under 93 were admitted to a feeding center immediately. Examinations of children were repeated at frequent intervals.

Administration
Processing Information
Processed by Alison Oswald, archivist, 2012.
Author
Alison Oswald.
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Donated to the United States National Museum by the American Relief Administration, through Mr. Messerole on February 6, 1922.

Bibliography
Bibliography
Hoover, Herbert. An American Epic. Volume: 3. Chicago: H. Regnery Company, 1959.
Surface, Frank M. and Raymond l. Bland. American Food in the World War and Reconstruction Period. Operations of the the Organizations under the Direction of Herbert Hoover, 1914 to 1924. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1931.

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Access
The collection is open for research.
Preferred Citation
American Relief Administration, European Children's Fund Collection, 1919-1921, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Conditions Governing Use
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Related Materials
Materials at Other Organizations
Hoover Institution Archives, Stanford University
Register of the American Relief Administration. European Operations Records, 1919-1923

Custodial History
Custodial History
Originally housed in the United States National Museum, Arts and Industries Building, Division of Foods. The original accession number was 67854. The collection was transferred to the Archives Center in 2010 by the Division of Work and Industry.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Photographs -- 1920-1930 Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Pamphlets Type Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Children -- Austria Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Humanitarian assistance -- 1920-1930 -- Austria Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Relief and volunteer organizations -- 1920-1930 -- Austria Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Austria Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
P.O. Box 37012
Suite 1100, MRC 601
Washington, D.C. 20013-7012
archivescenter@si.edu
http://americanhistory.si.edu/archives