Scope and Contents
The collection consists of approximately 28,000 photographic negatives, slides, prints and other materials documenting Bethlehem Steel Corporation's iron ore mining operations. The photographs were taken by Richard "Jay" Angelo, a Bethlehem Steel Corporation photographer. The majority of the photographs depict Bethlehem's mining operations at its Cornwall and Morgantown, Pennsylvania mines. A smaller number of negatives document operations in western Pennsylvania, Kentucky, West Virginia, Michigan and Ontario. The negatives depict aerial views, blasting operations, tunneling, equipment and infrastructure, machinery, employees working, company personnel, and company-built community facilities. The collection documents the complete operations of a major, historic mining operation over four decades.
Series 1, Historical Background Materials, 1923-19933, consists of typescript general histories for the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, and specifically, the Cornwall Mine, Grace Mine, and the Marmoratan Mining Company. Included are some copies of maps, newspaper articles, photographs and one letter from Charlie Neil dated 1993 containing history of the Cornwall mining operations. Other miscellaneous items include articles about concrete, a retirement brochure for Sheldon J. Shale, and bound monthly progress reports of operations for the Cornwall Division, 1923-1929. These reports detail production, ore analysis, construction of mine shafts, repairs made, and physical plant conditions.
Series 2, Logbooks, 1949-1980, consists of personal, mileage, and photograph and negative logbooks maintained by Richard R. Angelo during the course of his career as a photographer for Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Cornwall Division. The series is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Personal Logbooks, 1949-1981, Subseries 2, Mileage Logbooks, 1957-1980, and Subseries 3, Photograph and Negative Logbooks, 1947-1968. The bound notebooks are arranged chronologically and are approximately 4 1/2" x 7 1/2" or smaller.
Subseries 1, Personal Logbooks, 1949-1980, consists of Angelo's personal logbooks which begin in 1949 and chronicle his daily activities and include the amount of time spent accomplishing each stated activity. For example, from April of 1949, Angelo writes, "making negatives and printing, eight hours." Later logbooks do not contain the number of hours, but many contain the number of vacation days Angelo took.
Subseries 2, Mileage Logbooks, 1957-1980 and undated, consists of logbooks with the date, number of miles, and location where Angelo drove. In some instances, toll expenses are noted as well as total mileage calculated for a month.
Subseries 3, Negative Logbooks, 1947-1980, consists of logbooks detailing the date, negative number and a brief description for black-and-white and color negatives. For example, the March 3, 1951, entry is listed as "#1840-0, waste rock tunnel, mine number 3." In some instances Angelo notes if a photograph or negative was rejected. Later logbooks follow an alpha-numeric identification system. These logbooks should be consulted when using Series 4, Black-and-White negatives. The subseries is arranged chronologically.
Series 3, Indices, 1943-1960, consists of typescript lists detailing the negative number, date, and a brief description for the Bethlehem Report (BR), the early Pilot Plant and raw materials (CN), microphotographs (MP), and Pilot Plant (PP,) and raw materials and office plant (RM). The person who assembled these lists or applied the alpha-numeric system is unknown. These indices should be consulted when using boxes 36 to 38 in Series 4, Black-and-White Negatives.
Series 4, Black-and-White Negatives, 1941-1963, is divided into six subseries: Subseries 1, #1-#4108, 1947-1961; Subseries 2, A1 to A400, 1941-1949; Subseries 3, B1 to B9995, 1953-1963; Subseries 4, C1 to C6999, 1963 [1969?]; Subseries 5, Chronological, 1950-1955; and Subseries 6, Topical, 1941-1961. The negatives are approximately 4" x 5" and are housed in glassine envelopes. In some instances, 4" x 5" prints are filed behind the corresponding negative.
The alpha-numeric subseries of negatives is not inclusive. There are indices (see Series 3) for the negatives in boxes 36 to 38 and the logbooks (see Series 2) maintained by Richard R. Angelo. The indices provide the alpha-numeric identification number, date, and brief description for the negative. For example, negative B-528 documents the #4 mine machine shop looking west, March 12, 1954. Researchers should use the logbooks in conjunction with the negatives.
There are some negatives that document diagrams, drawings, plans, sectional views, schematics for ore pockets, mine shafts, and flow sheets for the Lebanon Concentrator and the crushing plant at the Grace Mine. Some of the negatives were used in the creation of the Bethlehem Mines Corporation, Cornwall Division, photograph album which documents progress as of December 31, 1964.
Series 5, Color Negatives, 1964-1979, consists of approximately 940 color negatives, presumably documenting a wide variety of mining activities as well as employees. There is no index to these negatives. The negatives are arranged numerically.
Series 6, Photographic Prints, 1880s-1972 and undated, consists primarily of black-and-white prints of mining equipment, views of mine interiors (including the mine vein), aerial views, buildings, and employees. The bulk of photographs document Bethlehem mines in Pennsylvania, specifically Cornwall and Grace, but there is documentation for the Marmora Mine in Ontario, Canada. Some of the prints have captions and dates. Some oversize photographs (11" x 14") documenting the Matamora Mine in Ontario, Canada, 1958, were taken by H.R. Oakman of Peterboro, Ontario. The materials are arranged alphabetically.
Series 7, Photograph Albums, 1951-1971, consists of five bound albums and some loose materials documenting the Marmora Mine in Ontario, Canada. Many of the albums were photographed by H.R. Oakman of Peterboro, Ontario. The albums contain mounted black-and-white prints that are 4" x 5" or 11" x 17." The albums are arranged chronologically.
Series 8, Slides, 1950-1980, contains 35 mm slides in both black and white and color. The slides document a range of activities and are arranged alphabetically by mine location.
Series 9, Moving Images, 1961 and undated, consists of two color 16 mm films documenting the Grace Mine in Pennsylvania.