Colonel Charles Edward Woodruff photographs from California

Collection ID:
Woodruff, Charles Edward, 1860-1915
Physical Description:
13 Negatives (photographic)
This collection includes negatives (photographic) made by Charles Edward Woodruff in 1890 among the Hupa community in California, with locations including Humboldt, County Hoopa Valley Reservation, and the cemetery at Matilton.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
This collection is currently unprocessed. Negatives (photographic) include N11784-N11796.

Arranged by catalog number.

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
Charles Edward Woodruff was born in Philadelphia on October 2, 1860, to David S. and Mary J. Remster Woodruff. He attended Philadelphia's Central High School and graduated in arts at the University of Pennsylvania. Woodruff went on to attend the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis for three years, but rather than finishing his education as a naval officer, left the Naval Academy to study medicine. He transferred to Jefferson Medical College, graduating in 1886. Following his graduation, Woodruff entered the navy as an assistant surgeon. After one year, he was transferred to the army Medical Corps, where he eventually rose to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. While in the army Medical Corps, he served two terms in the Philippines, which inspired him to write his controversial books "The Effect of Tropical Light on White Men," "Expansion of Races," and "Medical Ethnology." He retired from the army due to poor health in 1913. After his retirement, he traveled extensively and studied medical topics, on which he published many pamphlets. In 1914, he became associate editor of American Medicine. He married and had two sons. On June 13, 1915, he died at his home in New Rochelle, New York, from arteriosclerosis.
For Woodruff's obituary, see "Charles Edward Woodruff," British Medical Journal on PubMed Central.

Mikaela Hamilton
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Accession information currently unknown.
Processing Information
Collection record written by Mikaela Hamilton, Archives Center intern, in 2020

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Access
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email:
Restrictions: N11785, N11787, N11789, N11791, N11792, N11794 are restricted due to cultural sensitivity. Collection materials reviewed by Leo Carpenter, Hoopa tribal member of Yurok and Karok descent, in 1998.
Conditions Governing Use
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Preferred Citation
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Colonel Charles Edward Woodruff photographs from California, image #, NMAI.AC.138; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.

More Information

Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Hupa Cultural Context Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Humboldt County (Calif.) Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation (Calif.) Geographic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Museum of the American Indian
4220 Silver Hill Rd
Suitland, Maryland 20746-2863