Timothy H. O'Sullivan and William Bell photographs from the U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian
Digitized Content

Summary
Collection ID:
NMAI.AC.229
Creators:
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882
Bell, William, 1830-1910
Geographical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian (U.S.)
Dates:
1871-1874
Languages:
No linguistic content; Not applicable
Physical Description:
54 albumen prints
7 copy negatives
Repository:
This collection contains photographs documenting American Indian communities and landscape scenes in the Southwest photographed by Timothy O'Sullivan and William Bell for U.S. geographical surveys circa 1971-1974.

Scope and Contents
Scope and Contents
P01730, P01731, P01733, P01735, P01743-P01792 (copy negatives: N34849-N34851, N34853- N34855, N35051)
This collection contains 54 photographs (plus 7 copy negatives) that were shot by photographer Timothy O'Sullivan 1871, 1873, and 1874 and William Bell in 1872 for the U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, under Lieutenant George M. Wheeler, War Department, Corps of Engineers, U.S.A. The survey was commonly referred to as the "Wheeler Surveys."
The photographs depict American Indian Pueblos in the Southwest including Apache; A:shiwi (Zuni); Diné (Navajo); Hopi; Jicarilla Apache; Laguna Pueblo; Mohave; San Felipe Pueblo; Taos Pueblo; and Ute, among other communities. In addition, the collection contains landscape and scenic shot in the same region.
The bulk of the photos in this collection are one half of a stereoscope photograph that was never pasted onto a stereoscope card. The copy negatives in this collection were created by the Museum of the American Indian in the late 1960s.

Arrangement
Arrangement
This collection is arranged by year and subject matter.

Biographical / Historical
Biographical / Historical
The geographical surveys west of the 100th meridian were operated under the United States Army Corps of Engineers and supervised by First Lieutenant (later Captain) George Montague Wheeler from 1869 through 1879. They were intended to document the geography in order to make accurate maps, record locations of American Indian tribes in the region, select possible sites for military installations and rail or common roads, and note resources in the area. In total, the surveys analyzed the region now covered by Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho, and Oregon, and the expeditions produced 164 maps, 41 publications, and a series of stereoviews. Timothy H. O'Sullivan began photographing geographical surveys in 1867-1869 when he was the official photographer for Clarence King's United States Geological Exploration of the 40th Parallel. He served as the official photographer for the Wheeler surveys in 1871, 1873, and 1874, with William Bell taking over in 1872. O'Sullivan later became the United States Geological Survey's first photographer in Washington, D.C.
[History note from the National Anthropological Archives collection record NAA.PhotoLot.167 with edits made by NMAI]

Administration
Processing Information
This collection is still in need of processing. Collection record written by Emily Moazami, Supervisory Archivist, 2020.
Author
Emily Moazami
Immediate Source of Acquisition
It is unclear when most of these photographs were obtained by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.

Using the Collection
Conditions Governing Access
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Preferred Citation
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection of Timothy H. O'Sullivan photographs, image #, NMAI.AC.229, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Conditions Governing Use
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
A:shiwi (Zuni) Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Diné (Navajo) Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Cochiti Pueblo Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Hopi Pueblo Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Isleta Pueblo Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Jicarilla Apache Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Laguna Pueblo Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Mojave (Mohave) Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
San Felipe Pueblo Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Taos Pueblo Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ute Culture Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Chelly, Canyon de (Ariz.) Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Arizona Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Colorado Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
New Mexico Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Idaho Place Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
National Museum of the American Indian
4220 Silver Hill Rd
Suitland 20746-2863
nmaiarchives@si.edu
http://nmai.si.edu/explore/collections/archive/