C. S. (Constantine Samuel) Rafinesque Papers,
1815-1834 and undated
Digitized Content

Collection ID:
Record Unit 7250
Rafinesque, C. S, (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840
1815-1834 and undated
Physical Description:
0.1 linear meter.
Smithsonian Institution Archives

This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.

Descriptive Entry
Descriptive Entry
This collection consists of notebooks kept by Rafinesque on his many trips, containing natural history notes and observations; ichthyological and botanical drawings; sketches of landscapes and places visited; itineraries; and trip journals. Some of the notebooks are in French

Historical Note
Historical Note
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque (1783-1840) was born near Constantinople. In 1792, he moved with his family to Leghorn, Italy, where he was educated by private tutors. Rafinesque showed an early enthusiasm for the study of nature, beginning the systematic collection of a herbarium when he was eleven years old. In 1802, he traveled to Philadelphia, where he became acquainted with several American scientists, including Benjamin Rush and William Bartram. During his three years in America, Rafinesque made several field trips, collecting botanical and zoological specimens. He returned to Italy in 1805 and for the next ten years resided in Sicily. While studying the ichthyology of Sicilian waters, Rafinesque worked as secretary and chancellor to the American Consul and as an exporter of squills and medicinal plants. A series of personal problems caused him to return to America in 1815. Surviving a shipwreck off Long Island, he settled in New York where he worked at times as a private tutor. From 1815 to 1818, he studied the flora and fauna of the Hudson Valley, Lake George, and Long Island. In 1819, Rafinesque was appointed Professor of Botany, Natural History, and Modern Languages at Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky, where he remained until 1826. From 1826 until his death, he lived in Philadelphia and continued to make field trips and study the flora and fauna of the region.
Rafinesque's chief interests were botany and ichthyology. Despite a peculiar personality that alienated many colleagues, he contributed significantly to nineteenth century scientific thought. He was one of the first American naturalists to depart from the Linnaean system of classification and adopt the emerging schemes of natural plant classification. Rafinesque was an early advocate of evolutionary theory and his ideas were acknowledged by Charles Darwin in On the Origin of Species.

Personal Papers

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7250, Rafinesque, C. S, (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840, C. S. (Constantine Samuel) Rafinesque Papers

Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Botany Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Ichthyology Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Natural history Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Scientific illustrations Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Field notes Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Washington, D.C.
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