Soviet Space Medicine Interviews,
1989

Summary
Collection ID:
Record Unit 9551
Dates:
1989
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
files and .rm files (Reference copies).
Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Introduction
Introduction
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.
Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.

Descriptive Entry
Descriptive Entry
Cathleen S. Lewis, curator at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum (NASM), interviewed Oleg Gazenko, Evgenii Shepelev, and Abraham Genin about their research and participation in the Soviet aviation and space medicine program prior to 1964, as well as their work at the Institute. Lewis was primarily interested in documenting early work in the fields of aviation and space medicine. She also visually documented museum exhibits about the Institute's work in space exploration.
Session one took place at the museum of The Institute for Biomedical Problems. Cathleen Lewis and Andreas Tamberg (interpreter) conducted a group discussion with Gazenko, Genin, and Shepelev. In session two, Gazenko narrated a tour of the museum gallery of IMBP, which showed the use of animals in space exploration. In session three, Genin narrated a tour of the museum gallery of manned space exploration, which documented the development of the spacesuit, parachute systems, and factors for life maintenance in space.
In session four, Gireeva and Magedov led tours in the Institute's Primate Space Flight Training Facility, where they discussed primate training and conditioning in preparation for space flight. Session five documented interior and exterior shots of IMBP, without narration. Finally, an audio interview with Shepelev described his work in space medicine.
This collection consists of five videotaped interview sessions, totalling approximately 5:00 hours of recordings, and 86 pages of transcript. There are three generations of tape for each session: originals, dubbing masters, and reference copies. In total, this collection is comprised of 15 original videotapes (13 Beta videotapes, and 2 U-matic videotapes), 7 dubbing master videotapes (7 U-matic videotapes), and 6 reference copy videotapes (6 VHS videotapes). Also included is one audio interview, totaling approximately 1:15 hours of audiotape, and 19 pages of transcript. The collection has been remastered digitally, with 15 motion jpeg 2000 and 15 mpeg digital files for preservation, and 7 Windows Media Video and 7 Real Media Video digital files for reference.
All sessions were conducted in Russian with some English translation. Sessions were transcribed verbatim in Russian and were then translated to English.

Historical Note
Historical Note
The Institute for Biomedical Problems (Institut mediko-biologicheskikh problem, IMBP) was founded in 1963 to undertake the study of space medicine. It is located in Moscow, USSR, and consists of a Primate Space Flight Training Center, research laboratories and a small museum.
Oleg Gazenko attended The Second Moscow Medical School and The Military Medical Academy in Leningrad. He was a director of the IMBP (1967-1987) and was a specialist in gravitational physiology. He was a member of the first group of Soviet scientists to study the gravitational effects of acceleration and weightlessness on-board Soviet sounding rockets in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Gazenko participated in cooperative projects with the Life Sciences Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and oversaw preparation and evaluation of cosmonauts for long duration spaceflights.
Abraham Genin attended The Second Moscow Medical School and The Central Institute for Advanced Training of Doctors in Moscow. A specialist in biophysics, Genin's early work dealt with biophysical problems of aviation, especially the mechanics of decompression disease. Genin also worked on the factors of life support in space: cabin pressure, weightlessness, and gravitational effects on the blood circulation.
Evgenii Shepelev attended The Second Moscow Medical School and specialized in the physiological effects of artificial environments. This work was essential for the successful execution of the Soviet space station program and would be critical for sending people to Mars. Shepelev used himself as the subject of the first Soviet isolation experiments in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
Irina Gireeva and Vladimir Magedov were also interviewed. Gireeva was an animal technician at the center; Magedov directed computer operations in the building.

Notes
Oral Histories

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9551, , Soviet Space Medicine Interviews

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Gazenko, O. G. (Oleg Georgievich) Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Gireeva, Irina. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Magedov, Vladimir. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Shepelev, Eugenii. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Genin, Abraham. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Institute for Biomedical Problems (Moscow) Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Soviet Space Medicine. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Primate Space Flight Training Facility (U.S.S.R.) Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Women -- History Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Astronautics Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
History of science and technology Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Biology Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Medicine Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Gireeva, Irina. interviewee. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Magedov, Vladimir. interviewee. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Shepelev, Eugenii. interviewee. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Genin, Abraham. interviewee. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Lewis, Cathleen S., 1958- interviewer. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Gazenko, O. G. (Oleg Georgievich) Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Interviews Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Videotapes Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Audiotapes Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Oral history Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Washington, D.C.
Contact us at osiaref@si.edu