Smallpox Virus Sequencing Project Interviews,
1991

Summary
Collection ID:
Record Unit 9564
Dates:
1991
Languages:
English
Physical Description:
2 videotapes (reference copies).
Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Introduction
Introduction
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.
Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.

Descriptive Entry
Descriptive Entry
Ramunas Kondratas, Curator of the Division of Medical Sciences of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH), documented the start of the project to sequence the smallpox virus genome at the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland. As the result of NINDS's extensive facilities for DNA sequencing, it was chosen as the site for the joint CDC-NIH project to sequence the Bangladesh 1975 strain of the virus. The session was videotaped in the instrument room, laboratory, library, and computer room of NINDS, November 21, 1991.
This collection consists of one interview session, totaling approximately 3:00 hours of video recordings, and 44 pages of transcript. There are three generations of tape for each session: originals, dubbing masters, and reference copies. In total, this collection is comprised of 9 original videotapes (9 Beta videotapes), 3 dubbing master videotapes (3 U-Matic videotapes), and 2 reference copy videotapes (2 VHS videotapes). The collection has been remastered digitally, with 9 motion jpeg 2000 and 9 mpeg digital files for preservation, and 3 Windows Media Video and 3 Real Media Video digital files for reference.
For additional information on DNA Sequencing, see Record Unit 9549, DNA Sequencing, Smithsonian Videohistory Collection, in Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Historical Note
Historical Note
In 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a program of world-wide eradication of smallpox through mass immunization and vigorous containment of outbreaks. The last naturally occurring case of smallpox was identified in Somalia in 1977. After two additional years of worldwide surveillance, on October 26, 1979, WHO announced the global eradication of smallpox.
The virus remained in storage at two authorized sites--the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and the Research Institute for Viral Preparations in Moscow, Russia. In an address to the World Health Assembly in May 1990, United States Health and Human Services Secretary Louis W. Sullivan stated that technological advances had made it possible to map the entire smallpox genome within three years. Scientists agreed that the preferred first step toward the destruction of the virus was to determine its complete DNA sequence and in that way retain the essential scientific information of what would become an extinct virus. At a meeting of the ad hoc WHO Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections held in Geneva, Switzerland, in December 1990, it was agreed that all remaining stocks of the Vaccinia virus would be destroyed by December 31, 1993.
Li-Ing Liu received a B.A. in nursing from the National Taiwan University in 1979, and an M.S. in nursing from the National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, in 1983. In 1990, she was awarded a Ph.D. in physiology and biophysics from the University of Illinois, Chicago. In 1990, she joined the staff of the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as a special volunteer on the sequencing project.
Brian Wilfred John Mahy received a B.S. from the Department of Physiology and Biochemistry at the University of Southampton, England, in 1959, and a Ph.D. there in 1963. In 1965, Mahy entered the Wolfson College of the University of Cambridge, where he received an M.A. in pathology in 1966 and a Doctor of Science in virology in 1982. From September 1973 to August 1974, Mahy conducted research on RNA tumor viruses at the University of California, San Francisco. From September 1980 to August 1981, he researched coronaviruses at the Universitat Wurzburg, Germany. In 1984, he was appointed Director of the Animal Virus Research Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, England, and in 1986, became head of the Pirbright Laboratory Institute for Animal Health. In 1989, he accepted the position of Director of the Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases at the National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC.
J. Craig Venter received a B.A. in biochemistry from the University of California, San Diego in 1972, and a Ph.D. in physiology and pharmacology in 1975. From 1976 to 1982, he served as a Professor of pharmacology and biochemistry at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo. From 1982 to 1985 he served as Associate Chief Cancer Research Scientist in the Department of Molecular Immunology at the Roswell Park Memorial Institute. In 1983 he was appointed Adjunct Professor of biochemical pharmacology at SUNY-Buffalo, and joined NIH in 1984 as Chief of the Receptor Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section, NINDS. In 1987 he also became Co-director of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology at NINDS, and was appointed Director of the NINDS DNA facility.
Teresa Utterback, a medical technologist working as a sequencing technician on the smallpox project, demonstrated DNA sequencing processes; Nicolay Selivanov, an Associate Professor at the Soviet Institute of Virology working on advanced cloning and subcloning of viral genes, demonstrated his template making of the pox virus, and Anthony Kerlavage demonstrated the data processing associated with the project.

Notes
Oral Histories

Using the Collection
Preferred Citation
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9564, , Smallpox Virus Sequencing Project Interviews

Keywords
Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Kerlavage, Anthony R. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Venter, J. Craig. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Liu, Li-Ing. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Utterback, Teresa. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Selivanov, Nicolay. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Mahy, B. W. J. (Brian W. J.) Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
World Health Organization. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Centers for Disease Control. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
National Institutes of Health (U.S.) Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
History of science and technology Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Medicine Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Molecular biology Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
History of Medicine. Topic Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Liu, Li-Ing. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Venter, J. Craig. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Mahy, B. W. J. (Brian W. J.) Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Utterback, Teresa. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Selivanov, Nicolay. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Kerlavage, Anthony R. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Kondratas, Ramunas interviewer. Name Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Interviews Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Videotapes Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Oral history Genre/Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

Repository Contact
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Washington, D.C.
Contact us at osiaref@si.edu