Archives of American Gardens

W. Atlee Burpee & Company records - Accretion 1


Collection ID:
W. Atlee Burpee Company
Burpee, W. Atlee (Washington Atlee), 1858-1915
Burpee, David, 1893-1980
Wm. Henry Maule (Firm)
bulk 1890-1930
Physical Description:
2.25 Cubic feet
2 boxes
The W. Atlee Burpee & Company records - Accretion 1, dated circa 1882-1980, document the firm's business activities developing plant varieties and marketing and selling seeds. They include seed trial records, administrative files, seed catalogs, promotional and instructional materials, awards, reference materials, and other items relating to the company and some of its competitors.

Scope and Contents

Scope and Contents
This accretion to the W. Atlee Burpee & Co. records documents aspects of the W. Atlee Burpee & Co., a mail-order seed company based in Philadelphia that was founded in 1876 by W. Atlee Burpee. It includes seed trial records; administrative and personnel records; trade literature (published by both the Burpee company and a few of its competitors); awards and certificates received by the company; and a few personal papers of David Burpee, W. Atlee's son and business successor.


Collection is arranged into four series:
  • Series 1: Plant/Farm Related Material
  • Series 2: Business Records
  • Series 3: Awards and Certificates
  • Series 4: Burpee Family Papers

Biographical / Historical

Biographical / Historical
Washington Atlee Burpee (1858-1915) began a mail-order poultry and livestock business in 1876 in Philadelphia, which he soon expanded to include corn seed for chicken feed. In 1878, he founded W. Atlee Burpee & Co. to sell livestock and vegetable, fruit, and flower seeds through the mail. His company went on to become one of the most notable seed distributors in the world.
In 1888, W. Atlee bought a tract of land named Fordhook Farms in Doylestown, Pennsylvania. It was initially established as an experimental farm to test and evaluate new varieties of vegetables and flowers and to produce seeds for the mail-order market. Burpee spent many summers traveling throughout the United States and Europe visiting farms and searching for the best flowers and vegetables. Certain plants he found were shipped back to the firm for testing and propagation; other seeds were obtained through contracts with growers throughout the U.S., a practice common in the seed industry at that time. Promising varieties were bred with healthier specimens to produce hardier hybrids that were more resistant to disease. Other Burpee trial grounds were later established at Sunnybrook Farm near Swedesboro, New Jersey, and at Floradale Farm in Lompoc, California (1909/1910). The company went on to purchase more land for farming in California, and established sales branch headquarters in Sanford, Florida (c. 1930s), Clinton, Iowa (1942), and Riverside, California (1949).
W. Atlee Burpee married Blanche Simons (1863-1948) in 1892. They had three sons: David (1893-1980); W. Atlee Jr. ("Junior") (1894-1966); and Stuart Alexander (1901-1934). Both David and Junior attended the Blight School in Philadelphia for elementary school and Culver Military Academy in Culver, Indiana for preparatory school. While they both attended Cornell University as undergraduates, they left before graduating due to W. Atlee's poor health. Junior married Jeanetta Lee (1893-1981) in November 1916, and they had two children: W. Atlee III (1917-1971) and Jeanette (1919-2002). David married Lois Torrance (1912-1984) in 1938, and they had two children: Johnathan (b. 1941) and Blanche (b. 1943). Stuart Alexander was apparently born with a disability; according to census records he worked on farms during his lifetime.
David Burpee took over the family business upon his father's death in 1915; Junior served as treasurer of the firm once he returned from military service. At that time, the Burpee company had 300 employees and was the largest mail-order seed company in the world. It distributed over one million catalogs a year and received on average 10,000 orders a day. Under David's tutelage, the company adapted to contemporaneous shifts in business and advertising methods, advancements in plant science, ever-changing consumer demands, and two World Wars. In response to food shortages experienced during World War I, the Burpee company helped promote a "war gardens" campaign that evolved into a "victory gardens" campaign during World War II.
Both W. Atlee and David used their position as head of a major seed house to lobby congressional debates in regard to two topics: postage rates (W. Atlee) and the designation of a national floral emblem for the United States (David). Additionally, both men belonged to the Union Club of Philadelphia and The Canadian Society of Philadelphia (which W. Atlee helped found), and served on the boards of directors for hospitals and other charitable organizations. Both father and son were politically aligned with the Republican Party.
The firm reorganized its governing structure in 1917 at which time it changed its name from W. Atlee Burpee & Co. to W. Atlee Burpee Co. Burpee's acquired three seed companies between 1878 and 1970: Luther Burbank Seed Company, James Vick's Seeds, Inc., and the William Henry Maule Company. David Burpee sold the company to the General Foods Corporation in 1970 and served as a consultant for the business until 1973. The Burpee brand was bought by its current owner, George J. Ball, Inc., in 1991.


Existence and Location of Copies
Copies of numerous Burpee publications including seed catalogs and trade literature are found in other public repositories and special collections. Many of these publications have been digitized and are available online through the Biodiversity Heritage Library at .

Using the Collection

Conditions Governing Access
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens:
Conditions Governing Use
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens:
Preferred Citation
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, W. Atlee Burpee & Company Records.

Related Materials
Burpee seed catalogs donated to the Smithsonian in 1982 by the W. Atlee Burpee Co. can be found in the Smithsonian Libraries and Archives' Trade Literature Collection at the National Museum of American History.
The Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection in the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division includes a series of images of Burpee company operations taken in 1943.
The Black Gold Cooperative Library System's Asian/Pacific - Americans on the Central Coast Collection includes images dated 1933-1939 of Japanese employees of the Burpee Co. working at Floradale Farms in Lompoc, California.


Keywords table of terms and types.
Keyword Terms Keyword Types
Seed industry and trade Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Mail-order business Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Gardens -- United States Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Business Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Agriculture Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Horticulture Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
advertising Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Vegetables Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Flowers Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Trial gardens Topical Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Business records Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Correspondence Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Pamphlets Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid
Trade catalogs Genre Form Search Smithsonian Collections Search ArchiveGrid

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